Volume 67

Please click on an abstract of your choice to access the relevant downloadable papers. Please note, you will need to be logged in as member in order to access the proceeding abstracts.

Green roofs: plant production and installation methods©

Author: D.B. Rowe

PP: 97

Green roofs involve growing plants on rooftops, thus replacing the vegetated footprint that was destroyed when the building was constructed. They can be categorized as "extensive" or "intensive" systems depending on the plant material and planned usage for the roof area.
Factors to consider when selecting plants include design intent, aesthetic appeal, environmental conditions, and media composition and depth that is available for planting. A wide array of taxa are potential choices for intensive roofs because of deeper media depths and the likelihood of available supplemental irrigation. In contrast, drought tolerance is one of the most limiting factors on extensive green roof systems given their shallow media depths and usual reliance on natural precipitation events to sustain plant life.
Seasonal emergence of invasive ambrosia beetles in Western Kentucky in 2017©

Author: Z. Viloria, G. Travis, W. Dunwell, and R. Villanueva

PP: 195

Granulate ambrosia beetle, (GAB) and black stem borer (BSB) are considered the most destructive insect pests to the nursery crop industry. These beetles usually mass attack nursery crops in spring, causing important loss due to the negative effect on the plant growth, aesthetic, economic value and unmarketable tree quality. The main objective of this study was to determine the phenology of the most abundant invasive ambrosia beetles in western Kentucky.
Grow your business©

Author: D. Deppe

PP: 117

The knowledge and skill we get through IPPS helps us create strong businesses that will continue to grow the industry, provide interesting plants for the landscape, and jobs for the future. I’m so thankful that the members in this room understand the value of coming together for these meetings. I have been a member of IPPS for over 40 years and stand by our motto, "to seek and share."
Many of you have been in this room before and look forward to this meeting each year; many of you are new to the organization and this might be your first meeting. New members bring energy into this room and into IPPS. Get to know a new person if you haven’t already—we need the passion that new members bring, we need their excitement for learning. Everyone here has their own unique knowledge about how the plant business works and all of us can learn something from one another. Let’s help each other as we learn how to move this industry forward.
You know I love these meetings—it’s a time to meet good friends, review the season, and learn more about how to build a successful business.
Characterization of microbial community structure in pine bark substrates©

Author: J. Altland, F.C. Michel, Jr. and S. Valles

PP: 187

A large body of research has addressed the biological community in soilless substrates. Most of this research pertains to specific sets of pathogens or plant growth promoting microbes. Very little is known about the overall microbial community in terms of species range, diversity and relative population density. The objectives of this research were to analyze microbial community structure in a typical pine bark substrate used for nursery crop production and determine the impacts of compost amendment and plant growth on these communities.
Negative hydrostatic pressure is an unnoticed but significant source of contamination in tissue culture©

Author: N. Askari and G.-J. De Klerk

PP: 85

Plants are characterized by a negative hydrostatic pressure, brought about by transpiration and by capillary activity of xylem vessels. Because of this, a stem that is being cut sucks up what is nearby. Often this is air but it may also be liquid. The diameter of the xylem vessels is 50–100 μm, so when the liquid contains bacteria (that are typically 0.5–5.0 μm), they will enter deeply into the tissue. To our knowledge, this alleged source of contamination has never been examined.
A screening to study the effect of smoke solutions, gibberellic acid, and cold-moist stratification on various grass specie©

Author: D. Schoemaker, S. Ebelhar, and D.L. Sanford

PP: 185

The research was conducted to serve as screening of several grass species to determine the effect smoke, gibberellic acid, and cold-moist stratification had on germination. Researchers have discovered that there are two important compounds inside smoke: karrikins and cyanohydrins. Scientists have isolated four different karrikins compounds. When karrikins are released from smoke, the compounds rests in the soil. Once precipitation occurs, the compounds mixe with the soil and germination occurs. Plants that are known to positively correlate with smoke are called "fire-followers." These types of plants typically have an evolutionary history of living in environments where fires are present.
Indoor plant toxicity concerns some consumers©

Author: S.A. Keene, T.N. Kalk, D.G. Clark, T.A. Colquhoun, and H.R. Mosk

PP: 361

The addition of plants to an indoor environment provides many benefits; however, some of the most popular plant species purchased for interior use possess harmful qualities. Using conjoint analysis, this study assayed consumers’ preferences for toxic attributes in indoor plants. Consumers demonstrated the highest interest in plants that were non-toxic to humans and pets, whereas consumers demonstrated the lowest interest in plants that were extremely toxic to humans and pets. Cluster analysis revealed two distinct segments of consumers characterized by their divergent responses to toxicity attributes.
Take control over horticulture by listening to the genes©

Author: P. Balk

PP: 71

Long before changes in the condition of cultured plants become visible, changes on the gene activity level already occurred; changes that originate from varying climate conditions or infection by pathogens. Also changes provoked by horticultural measures, on the climatological level, by nutrition, or application of agrochemicals.
NSure is a company specialised in detecting early changes in the activity of genes related to specific traits. NSure proved that analysis of these early changes adds value to decision support systems. One can act early and before it is too late. In what follows, a few examples of applications are being discussed in order to illustrate how this approach functions in practice. But first, some background information about the methodology is given.
A screening to study the effect of various smoke solutions and cold-moist stratification on Carex©

Author: D. Schoemaker, S. Ebelhar, and D.L. Sanford

PP: 193

The research was conducted to serve as screening of several Carex species to determine the effect smoke and cold-moist stratification had on germination. The current research looked to screen for the effect that liquid smoke and cold-moist stratification has on nine different Carex species. Each Carex species was tested with a 30, 60, and 90 day cold-moist stratification periods and four different smoke groups, plus a control of deionized water.
Ornamental pumpkin selection©

Author: D. Grant

PP: 63

Pumpkins or members of the Cucurbitaceae family have a number of uses. Ornamental uses include autumn decoration with Halloween types (Jack-o’-lanterns, carving, painting, displays and stackers), chucking pumpkins, giant pumpkins for competition and giants for boat racing. To complete the picture Cucurbits are well-known for their culinary use for baking, soups, pies and processing for canning (pies and baby food).
Plant trials in the Netherlands and Europe©

Author: R. Houtman

PP: 77

The Koninklijke Vereniging voor Boskoopse Culturen [Royal Boskoop Horticultural Society (RBHS)] has a long history in assessing plants. The society was founded in 1861 with the main goal "to put the correct names to the plants grown." The board members used to visit nurseries themselves to check plants and correct naming. The Trials Committee was founded in 1895 and the first four awarded plants all received an "Award of Merit".
Since its founding the Trials Committee is an important branch of the RBHS. Other branches of the Society are the Dutch Plant Collections (http://www.plantencollecties.nl/), various publications and the Harry van de Laar Garden (http://www.sortimentstuin.nl/). In co-operation with the Dutch Dendrology Society (NDV), the yearbook Dendroflora is published. All trial reports, as well as articles about (mainly) woody plants and their use are published in Dendroflora.
What’s your problem? Diagnosing plant disease for nursery growers©

Author: L. Santamaria

PP: 243

Production of healthy plants is the goal of any plant propagator. When it comes to producing healthy plants, all activities and practices at the nursery are connected and must be considered in order to prevent plant diseases. There are occasions when plant pathogens find a way to infect plants even when we apply good practices at each stage of plant production. This paper discusses what a plant disease is, what the possible causes are, and discusses plant problem diagnosis steps.
Hartmann and Kester’s Principles and Practices of Plant Propagation: a sneak preview of the 9th edition©

Author: S.B. Wilson, F.T. Davies, Jr and R.L. Geneve

PP: 291

With the ninth edition—Davies, Geneve and Wilson strived to continue the tradition and original intent expressed by Hudson Hartmann and Dale Kester in the preface of the first edition that "This book provides a source of information concerning the fundamental principles involved in plant propagation and serves as a manual that describes useful techniques for propagating plants".
Effects of chicken manure compost and high percentage of biochar on container-grown basil (Ocimum basilicum)©

Author: L. Huang, P. Yu and M.Gu

PP: 351

Biochar refers to the carbon-rich material derived from biomass. Research has shown that biochar can be a potential alternative to commonly used substrates, which is renewable and faster to generate—compared to peat moss. Based on previous positive results from using mixes of biochar and vermicompost as container substrate for basil growth—the goal of this experiment was to test the feasibility of mixes of chicken manure compost (5%, by vol.), a cheaper and more readily available alternative to vermicompost, and high percentages of biochar (50, 70 or 90%, by vol.) as replacements for commercial peat-based container substrates.
PlantSelect website: connecting designers and growers©

Author: G. Mostafa

PP: 15

Provide designers with a complete plant list they can select from, to forward order and secure plants at the design stage ready for planting when required as opposed to sourcing plants towards the end of the construction stage.
Managing water and oxygen for optimum rooting©

Author: E. Yafuso and P. Fisher

PP: 155

Propagation of unrooted cuttings requires high humidity and frequent irrigation events through mist emitters to hydrate cuttings. Container substrate is maintained at a high moisture level, which increases the risk of low oxygen availability and root pathogens. Oxygen is essential to plants for healthy root growth and nutrient uptake. Oxygen can be supplied to roots through either air-filled pores in container substrate or through dissolved oxygen in irrigation water. The diffusion of oxygen gas is approximately 10,000 times greater in air compared to in water and oxygen solubility in water decreases as temperature increases. There are limited data on the use of oxygen injecting technology to increase the dissolved oxygen levels in irrigation water for use in greenhouse production. The objective was to measure the effect of ambient
Assessing fertility in horticultural selections of Agapanthus©

Author: M. Dawson, E. Bodley, R. Stanley, I. Duncalf, and E. Morgan

PP: 41

Agapanthus is a genus of herbaceous, perennial, and rhizomatous monocots that are endemic to Southern Africa (Leighton, 1965). There are six currently accepted species, several hybrids, and numerous cultivars especially involving A. praecox and its subspecies (Snoeijer, 2004). Collectively, these are known under the common names agapanthus, African lily, and lily of the Nile.
Their low maintenance and abundance of flowers have made agapanthus a deservedly popular garden plant, widely grown throughout warm temperate regions of the world. However, agapanthus have typically high seed production and other undesirable weedy traits. These traits have allowed agapanthus to escape cultivation and become naturalized in several countries.
This paper outlines several approaches for assessing fertility of horticultural selections of agapanthus.
Commentary on woody plant breeding opportunities©

Author: M.A. Dirr

PP: 285

Dr. Dirr has assembled a short list of opportunities (desirable breeding needs of select woody species) for breeders and growers to consider. The big three
Nuggets of knowledge©

Author: D. Takao and L. Rupp

PP: 247

This presentation is a question and answer session which included topics such as: cost of electricity in a tissue culture laboratory; with a new plant, what is the procedure followed by a tissue culture lab to get the plant initiated; cost to get a plant into tissue culture; hormone rates used for cannabis cuttings; a list of the different rooting hormones that are available for use by nurseries; and a good time-card system for tracking hours.
Keeping nutrients in their place: irrigation management to enhance nutrient retention in container production©

Author: R.T. Fernandez

PP: 89

Irrigation is essential for container production and is typically applied daily during the peak growing season. Under-irrigating plants can result in reduced growth, a longer production period, increased pest pressure on weakened plants, and plant death from desiccation. Since the visible symptoms of under-irrigating are very apparent, irrigators tend to err on the side of applying too much irrigation rather than risk the consequences of under-irrigating. However, there are consequences of over-irrigating that are as deleterious as under-irrigating even though the connection is often unnoticed. Over-irrigation can cause reduced growth, a longer production period, increased pest pressure due to a more favorable environment, and poor plant quality. Over-irrigation in combination with heavy fertilization can cause overly vigorous plants, also reducing plant quality and often resulting in higher pest pressure on the lush growth. Scheduling irrigation to avoid both over- and under-irrigation will improve productivity.
Selecting compact cultivars for horticulture from wild plant populations©

Author: A. Stewart

PP: 13

The demand for compact ornamental plant cultivars in world horticulture is being simultaneously driven by both consumers and plant producers. Increasing urbanization around the world is creating ever higher population densities in cities with the result that gardens are getting smaller and smaller and in many cases are confined to balconies, courtyards and rooftops. This is driving a demand for compact plants, preferably ones that can complete their entire life cycle in a container if there is no in ground garden area.
The demand for compact plants is also being driven by wholesale growers who will maximize profits by growing cultivars that require the most minimal of inputs. Compact cultivars that do not require pinching or pruning and can grow to a saleable size within a matter of weeks with minimal input of water and fertilizer represent the ideal nursery plant. Mechanization of production to lower costs also demands compact, preferably vegetatively propagated plants that provide the uniformity that will optimize the success of mechanical production. A height under 40 cm will also minimize freight costs to enable the maximum number of plants in a given volume of freight space.
All-America Selections winners for 2017: outstanding ornamentals and edible crops for producers and home gardens©

Author: D. Blazek and E.K. Blythe

PP: 249

Seventeen cultivars became All-America Selections (AAS) National Award Winners for 2017. AAS includes a network of over 80 trial grounds across the United Stated and Canada where new, never-before-sold cultivars are "Tested Nationally and Proven Locally®" by skilled, impartial AAS Judges. Only the best performers are declared AAS Winners. Once these new cultivars are announced as AAS Winners, they are available for immediate sale and distribution. An additional seven cultivars were selected as AAS Regional Award Winners for 2017. Regional winners undergo the same trialing process as national winners, but are recognized as cultivars that exhibit outstanding performance in specific regional climates.
Biological control in propagation©

Author: M. LaChapell Schalock

PP: 217

Biological control involves the release or application of natural enemies, including parasitoids (parasitic wasps), predators, and pathogens (entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes) to regulate an existing pest population. There are many benefits to releasing beneficial insects in any growing environment. For propagators, the benefit is an increase in plant health and a reduction in pest pressure that has the potential to remain until the plants are sold.
2017 New Zealand exchange experience©

Author: K. Broadlick

PP: 235

I was lucky recipient of the IPPS-New Zealand exchange fellowship, sponsored by the IPPS-Western Region. It was an incredible trip. I spent the first week and a half visiting nurseries, followed by the New Zealand Region’s annual conference, and then two additional weeks exploring the country. It
Propagation and out planting of Chrysopsis species endemic to the Florida Panhandle©

Author: G. E. Campbell-Mart

PP: 357

Goldenasters (Chrysopsis), members of the Asteraceae, range from eastern to central North American native annuals to short lived perennial plants—with many endemics found throughout the southern United States. Two Chrysopsis native to the Florida panhandle include C. godfreyi which is present in two forms (f. godfreyi and f. viridis) and C. gossypina ssp. cruiseana which occur in secondary beach dunes and scrub plant communities. Both species are considered endangered in Florida and are restricted to the western Panhandle of Florida. The authors describe sexual and asexual propagation information and planting results for these plants within a restoration context.
Nursery innovation on a budget-making every penny count©

Author: J.C. Harden Jr.

PP: 271

Today’s nursery business faces increasing expenses and operating costs on a daily basis. Increased expenses include: labor, supplies, shipping and taxes. Improving efficiency of operations through innovations is one of the best ways to increase profitability. The first step for innovations is a willing attitude for change. Innovations in a business need not cost a large amount of money—in order to enhance efficiency and save money in the long run. Innovations entail improving the nursery site layout, changes in organization of supplies and products, addition or modification of equipment, changes in supply management—and enhancing and streamlining organization and communication with personnel.
Foodscaping: revolution or evolution?©

Author: B.G. Arthur

PP: 279

Marketing horticultural relevance is the best way to describe my passion of foodscaping. The idea is simple: add purpose to landscapes in developed areas such as suburban neighborhoods, office parks, school campuses and retirement communities
Isopropyl alcohol and auxin application method affect phytotoxicity of herbaceous stem cuttings©

Author: James T. Ray, Eugene K. Blythe, Guihong Bi, Patricia R. Knight,

PP: 307

In response to commercial propagators’ inquiries regarding potential phytotoxicity of alcohol used in root-promoting solutions for cutting propagation, three experiments were conducted using stem cuttings of three herbaceous plant taxa. Solutions were prepared with three rates of isopropyl alcohol (0%, 25% or 50%) in combination with three rates of indole-3-butyric acid or a mixture of IBA and 1-naphthalene acetic acid and applied to cuttings using the basal quick-dip method or total immersion method. No stem or leaf burn occurred using the basal quick-dip method, whereas foliar and stem burn occurred on cuttings of Pelargonium ‘Mary Helen’ using the total immersion method with solutions containing alcohol (regardless of IBA rate). Results indicate that solutions containing up to 50% alcohol can be used safely when applied using either basal quick-dip or total immersion methods for stem cuttings of Chrysanthemum Mammoth and Impatiens ‘Coral’.
Midwest groundcovers lean flow journey with Flow Vision©

Author: M. Fredrickson

PP: 127

Midwest Groundcovers is a wholesale nursery based out of St. Charles, Illinois that focuses on growing a wide range of products in five production nurseries in Illinois and Michigan. Due to concerns of decreasing labor availability, increasing labor costs, and increasing transportation costs; along with the desire to increase the capacity of order fulfillment, increase transportation capacities, and to eliminate all non-value added work, we explored how Flow Vision could help us to streamline processes to ease these concerns and to increase our overall profitability. Midwest Groundcovers began working with Flow Vision in June of 2015. During the first assessment, Flow Vision identified five areas for Lean Flow redesigns. Distribution and shipping, the customer pick-up area, propagation, lean materials strategies, and cart optimization, possibly with Lean Flow’s RIO software.
Vegetable propagation by grafting and its importance©

Author: P. Devi, A.S. Attavar, and C. Miles

PP: 253

Grafting vegetable plants onto specific rootstocks that are resistant to soilborne diseases such as verticillium wilt and fusarium wilt has become a common practice, attracting interest among intensive vegetable crop producers as well as organic growers. This abstract paper discusses the history and advantages of the technique.
The rooting response of evergreen and deciduous cuttings to foliar applications of the rooting hormone indole-3-butyric acid©

Author: A. Phillips

PP: 131

This study sought to answer the question of whether a foliar application of indole-3-butyric acid could replace a basal treatment of indole-3-butyric acid plus 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, in the production of evergreen and deciduous rooted cuttings, without a loss of plant quality or rooting percentage. Most deciduous taxa were not significantly different when comparing foliar and basal quick dip treatments.
Both evergreen and deciduous taxa that were significantly improved, or not significantly different when comparing foliar and basal quick dip treatments could be produced by using a foliar treatment without loss of plant quality or rooting percentage.
What’s old and new about phase change and propagation©

Author: R.L. Geneve

PP: 149

Physiological aging is an important factor associated with propagation. It is important for determining the time to first flowering and therefore seed set. Equally important is the relationship between a plant’s physiological age and the ability to regenerate adventitious organs. The relationship between plant age and the ability of cuttings to form adventitious roots has been known since the early 1900s and in a landmark study, Gardener (1929) established the role juvenility on rooting in cuttings from 21 tree species. Juvenility was also the subject of one of the first IPPS presentations made by F.L. O’Rourke in 1950 and published in Volume 1 of the proceedings. Although there has been recent work on the mechanisms controlling phase change, many of the concepts related to the impact of juvenility on propagation have not changed in the past 70 years. This objective of this paper is to revisit physiological aging and discuss current methods of plant manipulation related to phase change and cutting propagation.
What’s new in the biology of cutting propagation©

Author: F.T. Davies, Jr.

PP: 321

Dr. Davies presention on the latest new information on the bology of cutting propagation includes the following topic areas:
  • Developmental aspects of adventitious root formation
  • Auxins, phytohormones, cross-talk and rooting
  • Auxins and their application
  • Chronological vs. physiological age and manipulation of stock plants
  • Manipulating stock plants to enhance rooting
  • Environmental controls to enhance rooting
Back to the future: insights learned over many years

Author: C.E. Whitcomb

PP: 317

Dr. Whitcomb cites 19 insights learned over many years of research in ornamental horticulture. Examples include:
  1. Plants run on energy, just like everything else! Focus on energy production improves growth, health and all other aspects.
  2. More is not better: especially as it relates to micronutrients. It is NOT how much available iron, but how much iron relative to manganese, relative to boron, relative to copper, etc. All six micronutrients have an associated inner-dependency.
  3. Chemistry of irrigation water is the most commonly overlooked factor affecting plant nutrition.
  4. The 4 in. (10 cm) rule. When actively growing root tips are killed by dehydration (air-pruning) or root tip trapping, increased branching occurs along the root axis from about 4 in. back.
Optimized micropropagation protocol to establish high-yielding true-to-type plantations of elite genotypes of Tinospora cordifolia for consistent production of therapeutic compounds©

Author: V. Srivastava and R. Chaturvedi

PP: 259

Tinospora cordifolia is an ancient medicinal plant. The present investigation presents a successful method for large-scale clonal propagation of the plant using nodal segment explants taken from field-grown parent plants and initiated on MS medium.
Comparison of growth, yield, and fruit quality of ownrooted and grafted ‘Spirit of ‘76’ mango trees grown in pots©

Author: M. Fumuro

PP: 377

To assess the practicality of using pots to grow mango cv. Spirit of ‘76 (Mangifera indica L.), trees using their own roots propagated by air layering and trees grafted onto Taiwanese native-strain rootstock were planted in pots containing approximately 25 L of soil. The growth, yield, and fruit quality of the trees were monitored and measured for 7 years after planting. Trunk diameter was significantly smaller in the own-rooted compared with the grafted trees for the first 5 years, but there was no difference between the two after 6 years. The trunk diameter of the own-rooted trees was also significantly greater than the scion diameter of the grafted trees after 3 years. The total green-branch length was at least as long in the own-rooted trees as it was in the grafted trees after 3 years, and the leaf number per tree was greater in own-rooted than in grafted trees after 4 years. There were no significant differences in height between the two tree types. Fresh and dry weights were significantly greater for leaves, green branches, thick branches, above-ground parts of trees, fine roots, and whole trees, but significantly lower for the trunks of own-rooted trees compared with those of grafted trees. However, there were no significant differences in the weights of thick roots and under-ground parts of trees between the two tree types. The dry matter top/root biomass (T/R) ratio was significantly higher (47%) in own-rooted trees, but the fresh weight T/R ratio did not differ significantly between the two tree types. In addition, there were no significant differences in yield per tree, fruit numbers per tree, or fruit quality between own-rooted and grafted trees. Based on these results, it is suggested that own-rooted mango trees may be grown in pots because their growth characteristics are similar to, or perhaps even better than, those of grafted trees, and yield and fruit quality do not differ between the two.
Irrigation water alkalinity, not pH, affects substrate pH©

Author: J. Altland

PP: 189

Substrate pH of container-grown crops is predominantly affected by irrigation water alkalinity and much less so (if at all) by irrigation water pH. Despite this issue having been discussed in numerous extension and trade publications, there still seems to be widespread confusion as to how irrigation water should be managed to maintain optimum substrate pH. The objective of this study was to provide nursery growers and extension educators with a simple demonstration of how irrigation water pH and alkalinity affect substrate pH.
Enhancing perennial stock plant production through the use of plant growth regulators©

Author: S. Markovic and J. Klett

PP: 255

Growers in the Mountain West region identified these Heuchera sanguinea ‘Snow Angel’ and Epilobium canum subsp. garrettii and a few other Plant Select® brand plants for propagation research. Four variables (growing medium, container size, fertilizer, and plant growth regulators) were studied for stock plant production.
Improved air layering system for tropical hardwood ornamentals in Hawaii©

Author: J. DeFrank

PP: 267

The USA patent literature contains many forms of air layering devices. Hard structures with hinged sides can be found in the form of orbs, ellipses, and multichambered plastic pots. Additionally, pre-cut plastic sheets with attached gauze pads as the rooting medium and hydrophilic polymer tubes provide alternatives to pre-sized, hard enclosures. A new air layering system was developed in Hawaii that provides for wide variation in stem diameters and rooting medium volume. In our air layering system, rooting medium (high quality, long-stranded sphagnum moss) is encased in a tubular plastic net sack with length dependent on stem diameter and desired rooting medium volume. Large, woody stems (4-cm to 8-cm diameter) of a sterile, ornamental shade tree (Cassia × nealiae ‘Wilhelmina Tenney’, or rainbow shower) were the study structures used for refinement of the net sack air layering device.
How scary is this? Two emerging pests: emerald ash borer and crapemyrtle bark scale©

Author: M.E. Merchant

PP: 287

I am fully aware that an entomologist in a plant propagation meeting is likely to be only seen as a bearer of bad news. At the risk of being that entomologist, I was asked to update you on two emerging insect pests—one that threatens the future of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in the USA, and one that has the potential to damage the economic viability of crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia spp.). Besides the obvious bad news, however, I want to inject some hope. The good news is that we are discovering more effective tools that should help manage the negative impacts of both pests
The hordes: emerging pest threats to plants in the Western USA©

Author: R. Rosetta

PP: 237

Numerous studies have shown that movement of horticultural products is a frequent pathway for invasive pests. This knowledge suggests there is an awesome responsibility that comes with moving plants from place to place. When it comes to new pests, the nursery industry is both at risk and a risk. Those propagating plants play a key role in the prevention and detection of invasive plant pests. Growers need to regularly update their knowledge of new exotic species risks as the topic of invasive species is dynamic with frequent changes. Scrutiny of nurseries by the government, public, and industry will continue to tighten. This paper highlights a few of the emerging invasive species of concern in the western USA.
Plant breeding at North Dakota State University©

Author: T.P. West

PP: 145

Woody plant evaluations at North Dakota State University began in 1954. In 1971, Dr. Dale E. Herman initiated the Woody Plant Improvement Program. To date, this program has released 56 woody plant selections into the ornamental nursery trade. Historically this program utilized two methods for woody plant selections, landscape observations and mass selection (seed lot variation). Prior to 2012, there were no structured breeding efforts being conducted at NDSU for ornamental woody plant improvement.
The Woody Plant Improvement Program has three primary goals: (1) Evaluate unreleased or released cultivars; (2) Select and/or breed new cultivars; and (3) Increase plant diversity.
Marketing the ecosystem services provided by food plants for pollinators©

Author: D. Smitley

PP: 101

The recent focus on protecting bees and butterflies has created some pest management headaches for greenhouse and nursery growers. Despite the fact that production practices used when growing plants for garden center sales has very little to do with the decline of honey bees or monarch butterflies, much public attention has been focused on them. This has led to a few of the major retail chain stores putting some restrictions on their growers: banning the use of neonicotinoid insecticides, or requiring a label in each pot saying that one was used. Also, for plants that are either super-attractive to bees (like linden trees, sedum, panicle hydrangea, etc.), or for plants used as food for caterpillars (like milkweed being sold for monarch caterpillars and butterflies), systemic insecticides should not be used at all, and growers should avoid insecticide residue on flowers. The following resources may be helpful for learning about which flower types are the best for pollinators and other beneficial insects.
What is a "good" root system?©

Author: C. Whitcomb

PP: 263

Lush green foliage and bright flowers continue to hold most of the attention of landscapers and homeowners purchasing nursery plants. Recently, roots have finally been getting some attention. However, there is a great deal of misinformation about just what constitutes a "good" root system. Often, what is touted is unnecessarily flawed. Based on numerous container research studies, The author provided six examples of "good" root systems compared with flawed root systems.
IPPS European exchange 2016©

Author: L. Kenealy

PP: 315

Charting a career path is not always easy, but sometimes we are fortunate enough to have experiences to show us the way. In 2016, I served as the delegate from the Southern Region-IPPS for the Early-Career Propagator Exchange Program with the European Region. The SR provides support to attend the annual meeting in Europe and to visit nurseries and gardens in the region. The experience was one of the richest of my life. I expanded not only my professional knowledge, but also my IPPS family. The 2016 meeting was in England, and my hosts and guides treated me with thoughtfulness and generosity. At every nursery, greenhouse, and garden—they introduced me to new plants, techniques, and technologies that will benefit me throughout my career.
Automating a propagation nursery©

Author: John Cooley

PP: 207

In previous IPPS presentations, I have focused on roots in containers and how plants are not designed to grow good roots in containers. At the time, there was a lot of misinformation about containers and the containers that were available varied wildly in their quality. Fortunately, there are now good containers available that can produce a more natural root structure.
The woody ornamental sector stands out as not having adopted these air pruning containers. Why is this? I would think that having great roots that produce plants quicker would be of interest to the woody ornamental sector and trays are now practical, so they fit into current set-ups. There is, however, a third factor that is required to create good uptake is the economic incentive. It is clear there is not enough economic incentive currently. Anything that saves labor would be a major help in bringing about these economic incentives. Labor savings are available for our industry in the form of making people more efficient centrally or using machines to automate tasks. This requires a headhouse to which plants are brought and where most of the staff and machines are based. This requires an efficient, internal transport system which is currently only possible on new, purpose-built nurseries. I believe that having a headhouse with automation is possible at most current nurseries and will be the subject of this presentation.
Plant propagation for successful hydroponic production©

Author: H.-J. Kim, T. Yang, M.-Y. Lin, and P. Langenhoven

PP: 109

Hydroponics is a plant cultivation system in nutrient solutions with or without the use of a growth medium. Using hydroponics systems, crops can be grown in places considered hostile for crop production such as deserts, the Arctic and even in space. Hydroponics is a sustainable option to produce crops, as it offers many advantages such as higher crop yields in a smaller space. Increased productivity and sustainability is achieved through more efficient use of water, fertilizers, and pesticides, and faster production cycles, year around production, and production at the point of sale. Hydroponic production normally starts from seed propagation. Establishing vigorous, heathy disease-free uniform plant material is a key step for the success of hydroponic crop production. Several unique challenges need to be considered for successful establishment of plant material, which include choice of crops and cultivars, type of propagation media, hydroponic water quality and nutrient management, and environment control and management. The objectives of this paper are to provide some general information regarding propagation practices for hydroponics, and specific goals and unique strategies for each process to establish stronger and healthier seedlings. These guidelines will provide more sustainable options and help improve production efficiency of hydroponic crop production systems.
Lifelong learners: guilt by association©

Author: J.P. Wilhite

PP: 335

Once the reality of graduation sets in and we realize that we must spread our wings and go out into the "Real" world—not the one of a college student—but that of a wage earner and responsible adult—we often get the misimpression that we know something—after all we did graduate! Once we are among peers and hopefully begin using our education—we should quickly realize that there are many ways of doing things. Some better and some not, some smarter and some not. But if we are observant—we appreciate what we learned at a good university was a great base with which to explore and move forward without making too many silly mistakes.
Developing a modified hydroponic stock plant system for redbud©

Author: V. Lewis, S.T. Kester, and R.L. Geneve

PP: 177

Cutting propagation is a major propagation method for the nursery industry, but there is very little stock plant management compared with the floriculture and forestry industries. The objective of this research was to develop a modified hydroponic system for minicutting production using eastern redbud as a model system. Eastern redbud makes a good model system because in addition to juvenile seedlings, eastern redbud cultivars available from tissue culture present a good juvenile stage starting material for a minicutting stock plant program. In addition, although eastern redbud is difficult-to-root from cuttings, it does show rooting potential during a brief window of time during the growing season.
Plant breeding at Auckland Botanic Gardens©

Author: J. Hobbs and E. Bodley

PP: 25

Auckland Botanic Gardens (ABG) has a long history of plant breeding. It is best known for developing the ‘Wiri’ series of Hebe and Leptospermum, and has worked collaboratively with Dr Keith Hammett on crops including Dahlia.
The stated objective of ABG is to "Engage people with plants and gardens." To this end it actively promotes sustainable gardening practices including recommending plants suitable for Auckland conditions, and we practice and advocate a minimal spray regime.
ABG promotes plants that perform to a high standard in Auckland conditions without applications of insecticides and fungicides. Trials are undertaken to ascertain the best performing plants according to criteria that includes flowering periods, foliage and habit, and general plant health. The very best of the are labelled "Star Performers", and these are featured in display gardens and promoted to the public on the ABG website, social media, printed material and on plant labels.
Mulching for weed control: influence of type, depth, herbicide formulation and activation irrigation level on germination and growth of three container nursery weed species©

Author: D. Saha, C. Marble, B.J. Pearson, H.E. Perez, G.E. Macdonald, D.

PP: 297

This research was conducted to assess the impact of herbicide formulation, mulch type and depth, and activation moisture on germination and growth of crabgrass, garden spurge, and eclipta. Granular or liquid formulations of indaziflam, prodiamine, and dimethanamid-P + pendimethalin were evaluated for control of these weed species by in combination with either pinestraw, pinebark, or hardwood mulch followed by herbicide activation irrigation levels. Weed seed placement and light penetration through different types and depths of mulches were also analyzed. Results showed when using herbicides, mulch depth and herbicide formulation had a greater effect on weed control compared with mulch type or herbicide activation irrigation level. Mulch depths of 5.1 cm (2 in.) and liquid formulations generally provided the highest degree of weed control. There were no differences in light penetration or weed counts when mulch was applied at levels of at least 2.5 cm (1 in.).
New plant forum©

Author: C. Tubesing, J.R. Ault, B. Horvath, T. Ranney, T.P. West, and T.

PP: 161

Acer saccharum ‘SeptDak’, September Flare® sugar maple
Aesculus glabra ‘LavaDak’, Lavaburst® Ohio buckeye
Betula tianschanica ‘EmerDak’, Emerald Flare birch
Delosperma ‘Orange Crush’ PPAF
Geum ‘Cherry Bomb’ PPAF
Geum ‘Top Shelf Margarita’ PPAF
Hydrangea arborescens ‘NCHA8’, Invincibelle Limetta smooth hydrangea
Hydrangea serrata ‘SMNHSDD’, Tuff Stuff Ah-Ha mountain hydrangea
Phlox ‘Pink Parasol’ PPAF
Phlox ‘Running With Scissors’ PPAF
Rosa ‘HORCOGJIL’, At Last® rose
Rudbeckia ‘Glitters like Gold’ PPAF
Sedum rupestre ‘Making Progress’ PPAF
Spiraea ‘NCSX1’, Double Play® Candy Corn® spirea pp #28313
Spiraea ‘NCSX2’, Double Play Doozie® spirea ppaf
Ulmus davidiana var. japonica ‘Burgundy Glow’, Northern Empress® Japanese elm
Veronica ‘Blue Sprite’ PPAF
Water temperature and exposure time for killing weed seed on recycled plastic containers©

Author: J. Altland

PP: 191

Seeds of many weeds, most notably creeping woodsorrel and bittercress, adhere to plastic containers and trays and are reintroduced into the production system when the containers and trays are reused. The objectives of this research were to determine the specific temperatures and exposure times necessary to kill creeping woodsorrel and bittercress seeds using hot water.
IPPS Western Region Exchange 2016©

Author: P. Watt

PP: 31

In October 2016, I travelled to the other side of the world and came back a better propagator. When I first heard about the IPPS Western Region exchange offered by the IPPS New Zealand region, I was very excited about the possibility of going but it was surprising to learn of the small number of applications from the IPPS New Zealand region.
My exchange was hosted and coordinated by Jim and Andi Connors of Alta Nurseries, San Jacinto, California, the same couple that hosted the 2015 exchange recipient, Kat Scott of Scott Base Nurseries, Whenuapai. I had high expectations before I arrived based on Kat’s report and I wasn’t disappointed in the slightest. Jim and Andi were wonderful hosts, thoughtfully looking after me during my stay at their condo in Oceanside and at the conference in Phoenix, Arizona.
The history of the Texas Superstar Program©

Author: G. Grant

PP: 341

Texas Superstar® (http://texassuperstar.com/) is a marketing assistance program that involves the promotion of outstanding plants that have proven performance in most regions of Texas. From the beginning, this program has been a partnership of the Texas A&M University Agriculture Program (AgriLife Extension and Research) and the Texas nursery industry. Individuals with long-time involvement in the program include: Brent Pemberton, Mike Arnold, Cynthia McKenney, David Rodriguez, and Larry Stein. Only the most reliable and best-looking plants are included.
Growing the urban forest movement: opportunities and challenges©

Author: G. Priest

PP: 9

The concept of the (urban forest) is increasingly becoming a topic of interest around Australia and internationally. The urban forest consists of the living environment and green spaces within urban areas, including both public and private gardens, parks and even individual trees. Research is increasingly showing the critical role the urban forest plays in supporting the health and wellbeing of our cities and their communities.
This recognition is leading to a range of actions around Australia, with the creation of a number of initiatives and research projects which are seeking to advocate for urban forest protection and enhancement. There are numerous areas in which propagators and IPPS Australia (as their representative body) can get involved to create better, healthier landscapes and improve opportunities for the propagation industry.
Iran, a significant horticultural country©

Author: N. Askari

PP: 67

Iran is the second largest country in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region with respect to the number of inhabitants and economy. A production of 12 million tonnes of fresh fruits and 20 million tonnes of vegetables ranks Iran as 11th and 5th world fruit and vegetable producer, respectively. Pistachio (Pistacia), grape (Vitis), and apple (Malus) are the main fruits. In 2015, cucumber (Cucumis sativus) was the main greenhouses crop (84.1%) with 1.5 million tonnes. Almost 10% of the vegetables are produced in the greenhouse. About 10,000 flower and plant nurseries are producing ornamental plants using 3,500 ha outdoor and 2,200 ha indoor. Several provinces produce high quality medicinal plants. Iran is the main world saffron producer with 351 tonnes yearly.
Highlights of the IPPS 2017 Western Region/New Zealand Region exchange and ornamental plant breeding in New Zealand©

Author: D. Marinkovich

PP: 229

The author discussed the many places that he visited outside the conference as part of the exchange program. The second part of his paper discussed ornamental plant breeding in New Zealand including the fundamentals of plant breeding; and breeding programmes with polyanthus, sweet pea, and dahlia.
Adapting automation to your operation©

Author: J. Kupillas

PP: 221

Our industry is composed of a diverse membership that has in common the purpose to cultivate ornamental plant products for use as landscape plants. Due to this diversity, the challenge of integrating automation can be problematic. In my role, I interact with a wide community of representatives of nurseries in an effort to improve the sustainability of each nursery operation. In order to succeed, we need to overcome barriers that may be related to financial constraints, limitations related to existing practices, and challenges associated with existing facilities. I view this opportunity to address this topic as an open door to share key aspects to address in relieving barriers to improve the efficiency of production systems.
Seed dormancy in seven-son flower (Heptacodium miconiodes)©

Author: R. Geneve and S. Kester

PP: 171

Seven-son flower (Heptacodium miconiodes) has recently become an established nursery crop in North America. It is the only member in the genus and is considered an endangered species endemic to China. Seven-son flower is routinely propagated by softwood cuttings. However, there is little information on seed propagation. The specific type of morphophysiological dormancy in seven-son flower is shown to be nondeep simple morphophysiological dormancy.
Using Osmocote® Bloom in propagation and production©

Author: T. Bosma

PP: 181

A series of trials were conducted at commercial growers to show the feasibility and benefits of using Osmocote
Soil digestive system: functions and benefits of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria©

Author: S.J. Becker

PP: 225

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are soil bacteria that live on or around the root surface. Through their growth and activities, PGPR are directly and indirectly responsible for plant growth, development, and productivity through improvement of nutrient acquisition and uptake, plant hormone modulation, and competitive inhibition which decreases the inhibitory impacts of plant pests and pathogens. These benefits help to illuminate some of the many ways in which PGPR can help nourish, enhance growth, and alleviate stress for a wide variety of plants with agricultural, horticultural, silvicultural, and ornamental applications, as well as provide other benefits to both people and the environment.
Selecting salt tolerant pistachio rootstocks using tissue culture©

Author: D.P. Sharma

PP: 257

The presence of excessive amounts of salts in soil or irrigation water hinders pistachio plant growth and productivity. There is a need for a pistachio rootstock that can withstand high salts and supports a productive scion cultivar. Seeds of a popular pistachio rootstock, UCB-1, were germinated in vitro. Hypocotyl and epicotyl sections were excised and grown on media containing a differential range of salts. Four of the clones outperformed others in the field and were selected and patented.
Lighting plants with LEDs: a panel discussion©

Author: D. Koschmann

PP: 103

Day length changes and light intensity fluctuations can be challenging for growers, especially in the winter months in West Michigan. This is what led Walters Gardens to consider LED lights as a source of supplemental lighting to help improve plant quality and conserve energy.
Currently, Walters Gardens has about 12 acres of greenhouse space. About 2.5 acres of this area have high pressure sodium (HPS) lights. We had observed positive responses with HPS lights in items that we grow; however, we noticed the need to decrease our energy consumption and were intrigued by potential benefits LEDs might have on overall plant quality. Research shows that LEDs have the potential to be more energy efficient, last longer, and provide accurate wavelength specificity that can remove wavelength emissions that are not useful for plants. Considering findings such as this, in August 2014, Walters Gardens began discussions with Philips about an alternative light source to HPS light fixtures that could enhance the quality of our perennial liner production while consuming less energy.
An integrated methodology for propagation from seed of Perth, Western Australian provenance, native plants©

Author: M. Patel

PP: 17

This paper outlines the methods that I have developed in conjunction with my colleagues, to provide continual improvement to outcomes from our seed propagation work. Some 80% of our propagation is from seed, with the majority sourced from our own in-house collections. The underlying issue for successful propagation, is the connection between all the aspects of this work; the seed sourcing, the seed quality assessment, the timings and treatments of seed, the trialling of new methods to achieve germination and the detailed recording of the seasonal results to inform future work.
Biosecurity matters

Author: K. Hurr

PP: 21

New Zealand faces continuous risk from the introduction of new plant pests and diseases. Growth and diversity in trade and tourism, changing risk pathways, climate changes, and pressure from established pests require new strategies and measures to combat these challenges. The number of mail parcels has increased by 216%, sea containers by 37% and passengers by 47% since 2003. New Zealand is now home to 213 ethnicities and 160 languages (2013 census). A new plant species establishes wild in New Zealand every 39 days and climate change alters the risk of both new pests and diseases coming to New Zealand from our trading partners, as well as their ability to establish in New Zealand.
The Ministry of Primary Industries (MPI) has created "Biosecurity 2025", outlining 5 strategic directions which aim to address some of these challenges head on. The central strategy is a "biosecurity team of 4.7 million", seeking to enlist the help of all New Zealanders to play their part in keeping risk offshore and/or reporting and managing risk onshore. An informed and responsive public means that the biosecurity system is able to respond much more quickly to mitigate and manage biosecurity risk.
Influence of herbicide application volume on weed control in non-irrigated nursery production areas©

Author: C. Conner, C. Marble, and A. Chandler

PP: 367

Preemergence (PRE) herbicides require activation with rainfall or irrigation within 1 – 3 weeks after application in order to perform effectively. During dry weather periods, erratic weed control may result if herbicides are not properly activated. In this study flumioxazin (SureGuard® South Caroina) and indaziflam (Marengo®), two PRE herbicides utilized in bareground areas of nurseries and as directed applications in larger containers (often not irrigated with overhead sprinklers), were examined at different application volumes to determine if increasing herbicide application volume could increase weed control in the absence of activation irrigation. Flumioxazin was applied at 8 and 12 fl. oz. per acre while Marengo was applied at 7.5 and 15 fl. oz. per acre to 1.3 L containers filled with a pinebark : peat substrate using application volumes of 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, or 100 gal/acre (gpa) for control of common nursery weed species. The most consistent control was achieved with the high rate of Marengo across all application volumes (91 to 100% control) while SureGuard provided the most consistent results across all application volumes at both rates, with percent control ranging from 61% to 84% control. It is recommended that growers use application volumes at least as high as or higher than suggested on herbicide product labels and still attempt to time applications when some rainfall is expected in the coming days if possible.
Which is better for mother stock of leaf-bud cuttings of kaki (Diospyros kaki), root-sucker or hedge?©

Author: T. Tetsumura, S. Ishimura, and C. Honsho

PP: 371

We have demonstrated how to propagate kaki (Diospyros kaki) using softwood cuttings. One of key success factors of softwood cutting propagation, which had been thought to be difficult, was the length of cuttings; the shorter the cuttings were, the higher the rooting percentages were. We recommend using 3- to 4-cm-long single-node stem cuttings with one leaf, namely leaf-bud cuttings. Another factor was the cuttings collected from root-suckers, not from hedges. Although micropropagation is thought to create physiologically juvenile plant material and to provide cuttings with improved rooting, cuttings from the hedges derived from micropropagated plants of ‘Hiratanenashi’ and FDR-1 kaki showed lower rooting rates than those from root-suckers. The idea of using root-suckers was derived from the in vitro results, which showed that rooting percentages of shoots regenerated from roots of kaki cultivars were higher than those of shoots that originated from shoot tips. Del Tredici pointed out that root-suckers are physiologically juvenile and tend to root more readily than cuttings taken from other parts of the tree.
Recently, we found that the cuttings from hedged ‘MKR1’, a dwarfing rootstock for kaki, rooted well, although the rooting speed was slower. Hence, the objective of this study was to confirm, which is better for mother stock of leaf-bud cuttings of kaki, root-sucker or hedge?
Decreasing blue light increases growth of four diverse species©

Author: B.V. Swan and B. Bugbee

PP: 261

Light quality (wavelength) and quantity (intensity) play an integral role in plant growth and development. Results with lettuce suggest that increasing blue light has a negative effect on plant growth, and that there are interactions between high and low light levels.
Evolution of plant production in containers©

Author: C.E. Whitcomb

PP: 265

This paper highlights some of the historical research that led to containers that can improve the root system, rather than just acting as root packaging. Prior to 1968, plant containers, which had once been metal cans, were mainly smooth, injection-molded, plastic pots that created circling, congested roots. To this day, many nurseries fail to provide their customers with root systems without these problems.
Production cycles at Sheridan Nurseries©

Author: B. Brusse

PP: 121

Sheridan Nurseries was established 1913 and is located in Georgetown, Ontario, operating 8 Garden centers in the Greater Toronto area and two growing farms totaling 900 acres. We are growing 1200 cultivars of hardy nursery stock and perennials, and propagating over 2 million plants per year with 5 million plants total in production. Production planning should be fairly simple, right? But then, there are a few things that complicate the process.
Flying dangerous: drones and the nursery industry©

Author: J. Robbins and J. M. Maja

PP: 331

Small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS), or drones, are an emerging technology that is envisioned to be used in a variety of agricultural applications, including the nursery industry. There are lots of issues related to sUAS use that needs to be addressed including: types of aircraft, sensors, BIG data, flight regulations, liability, privacy, and applications. Until recently, the greatest challenge to the wide-scale adoption of this technology has been regulatory issues. However, the issuance of permanent flight regulations for commercial use in 2016 has provided clarity for users.
Beyond kungpao chicken: the plants of eastern China©

Author: D. Peng, J. Li, and M. Gu

PP: 337

Sichuan, where the famous Chinese dish, Kungpao chicken, originates, is a popular destination for plant explorers worldwide. However, as diverse as the Chinese cuisine, eastern China has its own unique plant germplasm. From the north to the south, Eastern China includes six provinces (Shangdong, Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, and Fujian) and one direct-controlled municipality (Shanghai). In this region, the percentage of mountainous areas of each province increases from the north to the south, which presents a huge source of plant diversity.
Although the hardiness zone map indicates Zone 7-10 for the region, my personal experience of living in China for over 20 years would agree more with Zone 6-9 for the region.
In the June of 2017, I visited horticulture entities with a nurserywoman from Houston, Texas and a nurseryman from Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Our trip stops included Fuzhou and Wuyishan in Fujian Province, Ningbo and Hangzhou in Zhejiang Province, Nanjing in Jiangsu Province and Shanghai. Many native plant materials have been adapted, and the current horticulture industry are developing at a rapid speed.
Pre-emerge herbicides and mulches for weed control in container-grown tree seedlings©

Author: A.L. Witcher

PP: 347

Seed propagation and seedling production in containers is a commonly used method for producing woody plant material for a range of applications including nursery stock liners and reforestation programs. Compared with bare root seedlings, container grown seedlings offer advantages such as an extended transplant season and increased transplant success. Some large-seeded species can be direct sown into liner flats/containers while small-seeded species may need to be transplanted from plug trays. Weed control is a significant issue in containerized woody crop seedlings since plants may remain in the container for up to a year. Manually removing weeds is a time consuming and costly process due to the amount of labor required. Additionally, agricultural labor has become difficult to maintain so nursery producers have fewer personnel to perform labor intensive tasks such as hand weeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of mulch and pre-emergent herbicide applications on seedling growth.
The struggle is real (but fun!): long-term breeding at a public university©

Author: R. Contreras

PP: 223

The nursery industry releases a lot of new plants every year, with an abundance of branding programs. There are hundreds of new annuals, perennials, and woody shrubs there are released annually, but relatively few new trees in comparison due to the longer time required for evaluation and greater land requirements. Oregon State University has a breeding program that tries to address long-term goals, which in turn requires evaluation of traits for many years to ensure stability. Often, we have a six- to ten-year generation period, so our program is a long-term proposition. Goal to support the industry are discussed.
Impact of seed technology on seed germination in horticultural crops©

Author: R.L. Geneve

PP: 1

The relatively high initial cost of horticultural seeds has led growers to employ precision seeding and transplant production systems to maximize seedling stands. This places a high reliance on high quality seeds for maximal seedling emergence and uniformity. Specialization has led to increased capital investment in modern greenhouses, automated seeders and sophisticated transplanting robots. This has challenged the seed industry to provide seeds that perform under these demanding production systems.
The two aspects of seed technology that directly impact growers are seed testing and seed coating. The goal of seed testing is to provide useful information on a seed lot
Restoration horticulture: propagation, production, and marketing of native plants©

Author: B. Schneider

PP: 141

Wildtype, Ltd. was established in 1996 as both a native plant producer and environmental restoration contractor. The term wild type was borrowed for the name of the nursery to reflect the genetic status of the plants we grow. The nursery currently grows about 250 species of grasses, wildflowers, trees, shrubs and emergent wetland plants. We are primarily a wholesale/commercial producer. Our customer base is largely federal, state and local governments, landscape contractors, universities, conservancies and nature centers. We are open to the public only 12 days a season. While we have a very enthusiastic and knowledgeable retail customer base, the market does not appear to us to be large enough to support a stand-alone retail native plant nursery in our location.
The term restoration horticulture has only recently come into fashion. The need for such a moniker is obvious as native plant production slowly takes its rightful place within the broader field of horticulture. The cornerstone of crop improvement is the selection of desired genetic attributes. In traditional ornamental horticulture and agriculture this includes traits such as bloom time, flower color, drought and pest resistance and nutrient composition among many others. Once these traits are isolated, large numbers of genetically identical or highly inbred plants can be propagated. Uniformity is essential to the marketing of this type of plant culture. The selection process (or lack thereof) is what largely distinguishes restoration horticulture from other types of plant production where uniformity is the goal.
Micropropagation of ornamental aquatic plants, Glossostigma, Microcarpaea and Limnophila 2. Effect of CaCl2·2H2O, KH2PO4, Fe-EDTA concentrations on the growth of explants©

Author: M. Minamiyama, A. Noguchi, and W. Amaki

PP: 387

For each concentration of CaCl2·2H2O (1.5, 0.6 and 0.3 mM), KH2PO4 (0.63, 0.25, and 0.13 mM), and Fe-EDTA (50, 25, and 13 μM) in the tissue culture medium, the effects on the in vitro growth of three aquatic plants, Limnophila sp. (unidentified), Glossostigma elatinoides (Benth.) Hook.f., and Microcarpaea minima (K.D. Koenig ex Retz.) Merrill., were examined. On the result of CaCl2·2H2O, Limnophila and M. minima showed the highest value of plant fresh weight (FW) on medium supplemented at 0.3 mM. However, leaf yellowing and abnormal growth occurred at 0.3mM in Limnophila. On the other hand, leaf color of M. minima became darker at the lower concentration. In G. elatinoides, the highest value of FW was obtained when the concentration was 0.6 mM. In all three species, lowering the concentration of KH2PO4 decreased the FW of plants. There was a clear tendency for FW to increase with decreasing Fe-EDTA concentration in Limnophila and M. minima. On the other hand, FW was maximized at 25 mM of Fe-EDTA and when the concentration was lowered to 13 mM, FW remarkably decreased in G. elatinoides.
Rotoroa Island: from rehabilitation to revegetation©

Author: A. Maloy

PP: 33

Rotoroa is one of many islands in the Hauraki Gulf, close to Auckland, the largest city in New Zealand. Rotoroa Island lies just east of Waiheke Island close to Chamberlins Island (Ponui) and Pakatoa Island.
Rotoroa’s land area is around 82 hectares (approx. 200 acres) in an interesting shape with gentle to steep sloping hills, several beautiful bays with sandy beaches ideal for swimming, rocky coastal outcrops and some crumbly cliffs that drop sharply to the sea.
In 2008 Rotoroa Island Trust was formed, funded through the philanthropy of Neal and Annette Plowman and, with the aim of creating a conservation park, the trust purchased a 99-year lease of the island from the Salvation Army. The trust
Are cuttings a viable alternative to seeds for sweet basil production?©

Author: D. Haijie, G. Mengmeng and N. Genhua

PP: 303

Sweet basil is one of the most commonly grown herbs in the United States with great flavor, antioxidative, and antibacterial properties due to its enhanced content of essential oils and phenolic compounds. Conventional basil production is via seed, which could be affected by poor germination rate, slow seedling growth, delayed yield production, and varied content of phytochemicals due to genetic and biochemical heterogeneity. This trial was designed to characterize the effects of cutting and seed propagation, as well as effects of four different planting densities, on root formation, length of growth period, and biomass accumulation of basil—to evaluate the feasibility of using cuttings as starter plants in basil production.
The "wicked " problem that is herbicide resistance of weeds©

Author: C.F. Reinhardt

PP: 5

Sociologists define a "wicked " problem as one without clear causes or solutions, and thus difficult or impossible to solve. According to Jussaume and Ervin (2016), herbicide resistance meets the requirements of a wicked problem because the causes of resistance are obscured by a complex mix of biological and technological factors, and are fundamentally driven by the whims of human decision-making.
Human influence on not only plants called "weeds", but vegetation of all types, is an important factor contributing to the shaping of plant communities in various environments, both natural and man-made. The tools and technologies that humans employ for the management of growth and development of plants are diverse but usually of either chemical (herbicides, plant growth regulators, etc.) or physical (implements, machinery, structures, etc.) nature.
Even though this discussion focuses on a chemical means of manipulating plant growth and development, namely herbicides, weeds have the ability to adapt to, and survive, other practices employed for their control. Domination of specific weed species in a weed community could develop in response to any control method, irrespective of whether it is of chemical (herbicide), physical, or mechanical nature, in particular when the method is not effective on those species, but successfully controls other species in the same community. Such (species shifts), and domination of one or more species, evolves over time and usually takes a few years to become obvious and economically debilitating.
Subantarctic islands: an intrepid journey and brief history©

Author: T. Hatch

PP: 35

It was with a sense of both trepidation and expectation that I boarded the shuttlebus setting out on the once busy road from Invercargill to Bluff—long gone were the miners, seafarers, polar explorers and whalers of yesteryear. Off on a long awaited journey to the islands of the subantarctic at the kindest time of the year—in January of 2016. Never a mariner, the quote came to mind "one does not discover new lands without consenting to leave sight of the shore" (André Gide). Arriving at the dock with an elect group of birdwatchers and animal photographers from various lands we boarded our sea vessel the Spirit of Enderby hosted by Heritage Expeditions.
Overnight we sailed the 130 km south to the Snares Islands with their steep cliffs only to be viewed from Zodiac boats.
Overnight we travelled on to the Auckland Islands in choppy seas, in a small 5 m swell, cold, and windy. Now about 465 km out from Bluff, we landed in a sheltered cove, with thick bull-kelp covering the rocks and the tiny Auckland Island teal bobbing about in the surf. Our Zodiac dropped us on shore and we had a short walk past clumps of healthy southern nettle. The plant life is rich on the Auckland Islands (the largest of New Zealand’s subantarctic islands) having more than 200 recorded species.
Technical sessions, Monday morning, 30 October 2017©

Author: K. Gantt

PP: 269

The 42nd Annual Meeting of the International Plant Propagators’ Society-Southern Region of North America convened at 7:30 am at the Omni Park West Hotel, Dallas, Texas with President Kevin Gantt presiding.
President Gantt welcomed everyone to Dallas, Texas for the 42nd Annual Meeting of the International Plant Propagators’ Society-Southern Region of North America (SRNA). He thanked Local Site Committee Chair, Benjamin Berry, and his committee and volunteers for the long hours in arranging the excellent tours, hotel, other planning activities and all their attention to detail.
Use rooting hormones or not

Author: J. Kroin

PP: 199

Plant growers know when propagating plants from cuttings rooting hormones are essential to produce quality roots. The question may come up, if one rooting hormone application is good, are two or more applications better? The first rooting hormone application may be performed by any basal or foliar method. Secondary K-IBA Rooting Solution applications must be foliar by the Spray Drip Down Method® using an aqueous solution such as Hortus IBA Water Soluble Salts®. First and secondary foliar spray applications may be at the same rate. There are positives to using secondary applications with no apparent negatives. When using secondary applications, herbaceous plant cuttings may perform better and plants may benefit from foliar spray where root generation is stimulated.
The Bailey Nursery approach to sourcing, evaluating, and introducing new plants©

Author: N. Hamil

PP: 343

Bailey Nurseries (https://www.baileynurseries.com/) currently owns three consumer brands: Endless Summer® hydrangeas, First Editions® shrubs and trees, and Easy Elegance® roses. Successful brand management involves a number of components including brand strategy, positioning, revenue goals, market intelligence, product development, trialing, intellectual property protection, "go to" market strategy, licensing, production, pricing, sales and product life cycle management. This talk focuses on Bailey Nurseries approach to product development. In today’s competitive brand market place
The development of fertilizer from the early years to today©

Author: N. Lafaille

PP: 213

This paper begins with a brief history of fertilizer from the first discovery of nitrogen to the creation of the first commercial fertilizer by treating phosphates with sulfuric acid, creating single super phosphate, the first patented fertilizer in 1842. Additional developments are followed throught the 19th and 20th centuries culminating with the the development of Nitroform slow-release urea formaldehyde in 1955. This is followed with a brief history of controlled-release fertilizers and what controlled-release fertilizers are.
Use of K-IBA as a foliar spray for softwood cutting propagation©

Author: T. Gregory and R.L. Geneve

PP: 173

This study utilized two species (Hydrangea paniculata) ‘Limelight’ and (Rhus aromatica) ‘Gro-Low’) that were chosen based on their sensitivity to a foliar auxin treatment. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of auxin concentration and timing of application on the rooting of the two species.