Volume 71

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Plant Variety Rights Review: What is Happening?

Author: Chris Barnaby

PP: Pages 1-6

Plant Variety Rights (PVR) are an intellectual property Right specifically developed for plant breeders, providing a tool for the commercialisation of cultivars and the opportunity to make a return on their investment in developing new plant varieties. The review by Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE) began in 2017 and continued through 2018 with the public release of an issues paper in September 2018. Further consultation occurred with industry and Maori in 2019 and concluded with Cabinet approval for PVR in the Legislation Programme. The draft PVR Bill had the first reading in Parliament in May 2021.

The review has obligations under the Treaty of Waitangi, the 1991 UPOV Convention and the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP). The Waitangi Tribunal report for Wai262 has formed the basis of change in the management of applications for taonga species and the 1991 UPOV Convention has provided guidance and recommendations on what is included in the new law including the greater scope of Rights, the addition of Essential Derivation and limited Rights over harvested material.

MBIE, Intellectual Property Office of New Zealand (IPONZ) and Plant Variety Rights Office (PVRO) have also conducted an internal administrative review of Regulations and PVRO practice which has proposed changes in administrative and operational practice.

Obligations under the CPTPP have set a tight timeframe for introduction of the new law with the intention to be in force by end of 2021.

Keywords: Plant Variety Rights, Treaty of Waitangi, UPOV Convention, scope of protection, propagating material, essential derivation, harvested material

Measure to manage – Lab testing for growers

Author: Fiona Calvert

PP: Pages 17-13

There are multiple laboratory test options available to nurseries, turf managers and plant growers to help manage their unique production systems. Most of these tests are complementary, in that they each provide a piece of valuable information that may not be entirely useful on its own but when used in conjunction can give confidence in any management change practices, and help with environmental stewardship. Lab testing can also help direct management decisions that may be needed to deal with climate change challenges and regional or national regulation. The sampling protocol used is critical, to guide interpretation and to realise the benefit of testing. Using an expert advisor is highly recommended. Field observations supported by test result data provides a framework to guide deci-sions, removing guesswork and uncertainty.

Keywords: Soil testing, substrates, potting media, fertilizer, hydroponics, foliar analysis, water testing

Tissue culture propagation of some temperate woody ornamentals

Author: Puthiyaparambil Josekutty

PP: Pages 14-16

Plant tissue culture is a technique of growing isolated plant parts and tissues in aseptic condition on a chemically defined medium under controlled conditions of light, temperature, and humidity. Mass propagation of many woody plants and trees that are difficult to propagate through usual cutting production methods in nursery can be better multiplied in tissue culture. Tissue culture not only offers rapid multiplication but also generates disease free clones. In vitro propagation also allows uninterrupted propagation of plants even in peak winter when the temperate plants generally embrace dormancy. Common tissue culture methods applied for mass propagation include shoot tip / nodal cultures; direct or indirect organogenesis and meristem culture. In this paper, tissue culture propagation of woody ornamentals such as redbud (Cercis) and birch (Betula) that are generally grown in temperate regions of Australia are described.

Keywords: Micropropagation, redbud, Cercis, birch, Betula

A brief look at grafting Franklinia to ×Gordolinia

Author: William Barnes

PP: Pages 17-20

Franklinia as a landscape tree can have difficultires in container production as well as the landscape partly due to root system succeptibility to soil borne pathogens. ×Gordolinia is a hybrid of Franklinia and Gordonia appears to be more adaptable to varying soil types and could serve as a useful rootstock for Franklinia. This paper presents initial grafting method and post-grafting growth in Franklinia on a ×Gordolinia rootstock.

Keywords:×Gordolinia grandiflora, Franklinia alatamaha, propagation, grafting

Tissue culture propagation of Aronia melanocarpa

Author: William Barnes

PP: Pages 21-23

A micropropagation system suitable for a student lab is described using black chokeberry. Explants formed five to six shoots in four to five weeks of culture. Rooted explants were moved to plastic boxes where they were hardened-off.

Keywords: Micropropagation, black chokeberry, student lab

Gibberellin and clipping promote germination in fresh grape seeds

Author: Bridget Bolt, Roberta Magnani, Marta Nosarzewski, Carlos Rodríguez López and Robert Geneve

PP: Pages 24-27

An initial experiment was conducted to reduce or bypass the stratification requirement for dormancy release and germination in grape seed. By utilizing fresh seed from mature fruit that had not completed the final maturation drying stage of development was found to be induced to germinate after a 2000 ppm gibberellic acid treatment or after clipping the distal end of the seed. This effect was further enhanced by combining the gibberellin and clipping treatments yielding 100% germination in this preliminary study.

Keywords:Vitis, dormancy, physiological dormancy, stratification

Tech talk: Bane or boon? a brief look at horticultural tech

Author: Lincoln Gillon

PP: Pages 28-32

Current technology allows us to grow quality plants, while reducing many of the input costs - like time and labor. In choosing new technology, be selective. It is not necessary to adopt every new gadget, app, or service that comes down the pipeline. Much research and development are out there waiting to help us with this. R&D, Use the information out there. But you should be aware of many growing factors, and utilize tools to tweak things one way or another.

Keywords: New challenges, information, research and development, collecting data, sensor equipment, environmental factors

Chicago botanic garden plant evaluation program

Author: Richard Hawke

PP: Pages 33-38

The Chicago Botanic Garden’s Plant Evalua-tion Program was established in 1982 and is currently one of the largest and most diverse evaluation programs. The program focusses mainly on herbaceous plants, but some woody plants are included. For comparative trials, commercially available species and cultivars within specific plant genera and grow in side-by-side for easy comparison of traits and performance. Invasive plant trials undertaken include numerous taxa from international collecting trips as well as common garden plants.

Keywords: Plant evaluation program, perennial plants, botanical garden, weed risk assessment, selection criteria

Breeding new plants and a new breeder

Author: Brent Horvath

PP: Pages 39-41

The breeding program at Intrinsic Perennial Gardens is discussed with special emphasis on the criteria for breeding and selecting new cultivars. Successfully breeding new plants comes from years of observation including taking inspiration from peer men-tors. It is also important to mentor the next generation of breeders.

Keywords: Plant breeding, herbaceous perennials, propagation, mentoring

Brown turkey fig softwood cutting propagation

Author: Allie Maternowski, Winston Dunwell, Dwight Wolfe, Virginia Travis and Daniel Becker

PP: Pages 42-46

A shortage of hardy common fig cultivars in 2020 led to a study to produce plants of brown turkey fig that could be grown in containers for fruit production. Softwood cuttings of Ficus carica ‘Brown Turkey’ were collected in June 2020, scored and dipped in Hormodin 2 talc, and then placed in 50% : 50% by volume perlite : pine Bark and Pro-Mix BX : pine bark substrates. These cuttings were evaluated for rooting a month later. In 2021, this method was re-peated but with 100 cuttings. The cuttings were collected in June 2021 from the fig plants that grew from cuttings in 2020, and they were evaluated for rooting a month later.

Keywords: Ficus carica, cutting propagation, softwood cuttings, rooting hormone, mist propagation

Supplemental nickel corrects mouse ear disorder of bitternut hickory

Author: Brandon Miller and Nina Bassuk

Mouse ear disorder manifests as leaf curling, necrotic margins, rosetting of the stem, suspended leaf expansion, and stem die-back in certain woody taxa including river birch and pecan. This is the first report of mouse ear disorder on bitternut hickory (Carya cordiformis) and its correction in plants treated with supplementing nickel ei-ther as a substrate drench or foliar application.

Keywords: Carya cordiformis, mouse ear disorder, nickel deficiency

Innovation at work: Dogwood breeding at Rutgers University

Author: Erin Pfarr Moreau, Josh Honig, John M. Capik, Thomas J. Molnar

At Rutgers University, we are continuing a tradition of innovation as we adopt advanced genetic tools and analyses in our dogwood breeding program. In this paper, we present preliminary results of two studies. The first is a genetic diversity study of 181 Cornus florida, Cornus kousa, and interspecific hybrids using the ddRADseq technique. We found that the pink-bracted Cornus florida formed a distinct clade separate from white-bracted trees and were more genetically similar than expected. For C. kousa, the accessions separated clearly into two different subspecies groups based on country of origin: ssp. chinensis from China and ssp. kousa from Korea and Japan. We verified eight previously described ssp. chinensis cultivars and found 13 additional cultivars that were previously unknown to be ssp. chinensis. We also found 17 cultivars that were genetically intermediate between the two subspecies, indicating they are subspecies hybrids. For both C. kousa and C. florida, there were also several cases of cultivars that are phenotypically and genetically indistinguishable, representing potential mix-ups in the nursery trade. Our data suggests these cultivars are clones that have been sold under different names in the industry. The largest group of such cultivars contains C. kousa ‘Satomi’, ‘Rosabella’, ‘Schmred’ Heart Throb®, ‘Hanros’ Radiant Rose®, and ‘Grist Mill Pink’. The second study is a Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) mapping study of C. florida to identify regions of the genome associated with powdery mildew (PM) resistance and tolerance that could be used in breeding. Based on 196 full-sibling seedlings of Rutgers H4AR15P25 (PM resistant) x Rutgers H4AR15P28 (PM susceptible), we discovered a QTL on Chromosome 3. This QTL was found to be statistically significant, but explains only 7.8% of the variation in the seedling population.

Keywords: Cornus florida, Cornus kousa, dogwood, genetics, breeding, ddRADseq, genetic diversity, QTL mapping

Challenges of improving urban forest canopy in the Chicago region

Author: Lydia Scott

Since the completion of the 2010 Tree Census and founding of the Chicago Region Trees Initiative, significant action has been initiated to address many of the challenges identified and to begin to produce desired outcomes. These challenges and outcomes, outlined in the CRTI Master Plan, are being undertaken by a wide range of partners as they become increasingly more aware of the benefits trees provide, the need to expand our regional canopy, reduce threats to our forest, and protect our native oak eco-systems. These challenges are too vast for any one organization to address alone and it will take a wide range of partners and participants, working together, to implement the CRTI Master Plan resulting in a healthy, diverse, and equitably distributed tree canopy benefiting all people in the Chicago region.

Keywords: Tree infrastructure, urban forest, urban forestry, Chicago Region Trees Ini-tiative, tree health, Quercus

Using apple bolts to test insecticide efficacy against ambrosia beetles

Author: Zenaida Viloria, Raul Villanueva, Ric Bessin, Win Dunwell

PP: Pages 67-72

Insecticide tests against ambrosia beetles entails an effective induction of beetle attack in artificially stressed plants, which is laborious and costly. Here we report a 3-year study using 30-cm-long Fuji apple bolts (3-4 cm diam.) to test the efficacy of several insecticides against ambrosia beetles in Lexington and Princeton, KY. Even though, fresh cut bolt technique is not a substitution for trees in ambrosia beetle and insecticide efficacy studies, it facilitates to a large extent the ambrosia beetle research. Pyrethroids and double mode of action insecticides and biopesticides were tested. The pyrethroid ζ-cypermethrin was the most effective for two weeks out of the three pyrethroids tested, followed by λ-cyhalothrin and β-cyfluthrin, whereas the dual mode of insecticide Leverage® (+β-cyfluthrin+ imidacloprid) was tested only in 2020 and was effective for the same period. All insecticide treated bolts were attacked at the of the experiments in 2019 and 2020.

Keywords: Insects, insecticide tests, Fuji apple, Malus

Laser-guided intelligent greenhouse spray system to deliver variable-rate water, chemicals, and nutrients

Author: Heping Zhu and Peter Ling

A precision, variable-rate spray system was developed for greenhouse applications. The system utilizes standard greenhouse booms equipped with laser sensors to detect plants and deliver targeted sprays of water, chemicals or fertilizer in a sustainable manner.

Keywords: Intelligent sprayers, commercial greenhouse, foliar-applied product, precision technology

New plant forum 2021 – Eastern Region IPPS

Author: Kris Bachtell

PP: Pages 77-88

New plants for 2021 are highlighted and described. This year six IPPS-ER breeders presented herbaceous and woody perennial plants.

Keywords: Cultivars, woody plants, herbaceous perennials, Hydrangea, Solidago, Gymnocladus, Acer, Echinacea, Leucothoe, Metasequoia, Rhododendron × kosteranum, Betula tianshanica, Pinus mugo

Technical sessions of International Plant Propagators’Society-Southern Region of North America (SRNA) annual meeting

Author: Brie Arthur

PP: Pages 89-91

The 45th Annual Meeting of the Interna-tional Plant Propagators’ Society-Southern Region of North America (IPPS-SRNA) convened at 8:00 pm on 25 October 2021 at the Renaissance Mobile Riverview Plaza Hotel, Mobile, Alabama, with President Brie Arthur presiding.

Keywords: Annual Meeting, Southern Region of North America (SRNA)

“To eat, or not to eat, that is the question” - Answered by real-time monitoring techniques combining with computa¬tional analysis for feeding behavior study of crapemyrtle bark scale (Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae

Author: Bin Wu, Elizabeth Chun, Runshi Xie, Gary W. Knox, Mengmeng Gu and Hongmin Qin

PP: Pages 92-99

Crapemyrtle bark scale [(CMBS) Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae], an invasive and polypha-gous sap feeder, has spread across 17 U.S. states. The infestation of CMBS negatively impacts the flowering and fruiting of various ornamental and fruit plants. Crapemyrtle bark scale host confirmation is critical to determine the insect's potential risks to the Green Industry and help develop strategic management of CMBS. Previously confirming CMBS hosts was time-consuming. We investigated the CMBS feeding activities using the electrical penetration graph (EPG) to monitor real-time stylet penetration to determine potential hosts

more efficiently. First, we characterized typical EPG waveforms (waveform C, waveform po-tential drop, waveform E and waveform G) of feeding activities for CMBS on a validated host, Lagerstroemia limii. We then tested the feeding behavior of CMBS using different species, including L. speciosa, L. indica × speciosa ‘18096’, Mexican beautyberry (Callicarpa acuminata), three Ficus species (F. pumila, F. tikoua, and F. auriculata), and soybean (Glycine max), with the positive control (L. limii). Results showed that plant species significantly impacted phloem sap ingestion of CMBS, which could be used to rapidly confirm a potential CMBS host.

Keywords: Data mining, electrical penetration graph, sap-sucking hemipteran, stylet penetration

Evaluation of surfactants for use in one-time foliar auxin applications in the propagation of woody ornamentals

Author: Anthony T. Bowden, Patricia R. Knight, Christine E.H. Coker, Jenny B. Ryals, Scott A. Langlois, Shaun R. Broderick, Eugene K. Blythe, Hamidou F. Sakhanokho, and Ebrahiem M. Babiker

PP: Pages 100-106

Use of foliar applications are increasing in the nursery and greenhouse industries. However, previous research has shown that insufficient auxin is being absorbed or translocated to the site of action. Addition of surfactants to foliar applications of auxin may help with the absorption and translocation of auxin to the site of action. Research was conducted to determine whether addition of surfactants to one-time foliar applications of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) would be as effective as the current industry standard, the basal quick dip. Terminal cut-tings of common camellia (Camellia japonica) and Teddy Bear® magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora ‘Southern Charm’) were sprayed to the drip point using Hortus IBA Water Soluble Salts™ at concentrations of 0, 500, 1,000, or 1,500 ppm or dipped for 1-sec in a solution of either 4,000 or 2,500 ppm for camellia or magnolia, respectively. A foliar application of 1,500 ppm after sticking was as effective as the basal quick-dip for cuttings of Teddy Bear®, while other spray treatments were less effective. A basal quick-dip was more effective than a fo-liar spray for rooting cuttings of camellia.

Keywords: Adventitious rooting, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), surfactant

Growth of liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha) and spotted spurge (Euphorbia maculata) decreases with substrate stratification and strategic fertilizer placement

Author: Yuvraj Khamare, S. Christopher Marble, James E Altland and Annette Chandler

PP: Pages 107-115

Substrate stratification is a method of filling nursery containers with “layers” of substrates (e.g., pine bark) comprised of different physical properties to manipulate soil moisture dynamics, improve irrigation and fertilization efficiency. However, stratification could also potentially serve as a weed management tool. The objective of this research was to assess the effect of stratified substrates and strategic fertilizer placement on the germination and growth of spotted spurge (Euphorbia maculata) and liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha) establishment in nursery pots. Before experiment initiation, aged pine bark was screened to three different sizes that consisted of particles ranging from 0.3 to 0.6 cm, 0.6 to 1.3 cm, and 1.3 to 1.9 cm. Bark was also screened to pass through a 1.3 cm and included all fines (all particle sizes less than 1.3 cm). The stratified treatments consisted of either the 0.3 to 0.6 cm, 0.6 to 1.3 cm, or 1.3 to 1.9 cm pine bark applied at depths of either 2.5 or 5 cm on top of the < 1.3 cm substrate. An industry-standard treatment was also included in which the substrate was not stratified but consisted of only the < 1.3 cm bark used throughout the container. A controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) was used at same rate (35 g per pot) in all the treatments; However, fertilizer was incorporated in only the bottom layer in all stratified treatments (no fertilizer in the top 2.5 or 5 cm of the container media) while the industry standard had fertilizer incorporated throughout. Results showed that in comparison with the industry (non-stratified) standard, substrate stratification decreased spotted spurge germination by 30% to 84%. Spotted spurge shoot dry weight was reduced by 45% to 55% in stratified treatments when the top layer was applied at a depth of 5 cm, while a decrease of 14% to 42% was observed when the top layer was applied at a depth of 2.5 cm. Liverwort coverage was substantially reduced by nearly 100% in all the stratified substrate treatments. Overall, results suggest substrate stratification could be implemented in container production as part of an integrated weed management strategy.

Keywords: Container media, resource efficiency, weed control, weed management

Exploring Water Movement Through Stratified Substrates

Author: Kristopher S. Criscione, Jeb S. Fields and James S. Owen Jr.

PP: Pages 116-124

An increase in horticultural production requires a greater demand for more water use. Soilless substrates, particularly bark-based systems used in nursery production, can be inefficient with regards to resource utilization. Substrate stratification is an innovative substrate management technique that involves the layering or stacking two substrates of unique hydraulics properties within the container system. The objective of this study was to monitor how stratifying substrates influences substrate water potential between two different irrigation schedules. Stratified substrates allow for added water retention in the upper half of the container, whereas in the lower half, air-filled porosity was increased. Moreover, stratified substrates significantly reduced tension fluctuations that notoriously occur in the upper portion of the substrate profile. Oscillations were even further reduced when a cyclic irrigation schedule was implemented. Thus, stratified substrates have potential for improving water efficiency in nursery crop production.

Keywords: Container media, container water dynamics, irrigation, water efficiency

Rooting response of Piedmont azalea (Rhododendron canescens) softwood, single-node cuttings to a basal auxin quick dip

Author: Jenny B. Ryals, Patricia R. Knight, Christine E. H. Coker, Gary R. Bachman, Jim M. DelPrince, Patricia R. Drackett, Scott Langlois, David Brand and Anthony T. Bowden

PP: Pages 125-129

Piedmont azalea (Rhododendron canescens) is a deciduous azalea native to the southeastern United States as well as areas in Maryland and Pennsylvania. Cutting propagation reduces the variability observed when propagating from seed. As a whole, deciduous azaleas are known to be difficult to root via cuttings, however, piedmont azalea has been reported as moderate to easy to propagate from softwood cuttings. Piedmont azalea has been observed to root as softwood cuttings treated with a range of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) quick dips from 5,000 to 10,000 ppm. The objective of this research was to determine rooting response of very soft single node cuttings to a basal auxin quick dip in order to provide growers with relevant cutting propagation recommendations. Naturally occurring auxins are produced in newly forming tissues. Therefore, a low dose of endogenous auxin might encourage young plants to root faster and more efficiently than older cuttings. Results indicate that single node Piedmont azalea cuttings will root with or without the use of an auxin basal quick dip.

Keywords: Propagation, IBA, Hortus IBA water soluble salts

Using poinsettia and pepper as model plants to investigate biochar and Trichoderma suppressing effects on plant diseases

Author: Ping Yu, Kevin Ong, Kevin Crosby, Terry Gentry and Mengmeng Gu

PP: Pages 130-137

Biochar (BC) is a carbon-rich by-product from biomass pyrolysis (thermochemical biomass decomposition under an oxygen-depleted or oxygen-limited environment with specific time and temperature conditions). Biochar is of commercial importance for replacing more costly peat moss-based substrate for greenhouse plant production - and its potential to suppress plant diseases such as Phytophthora capsici and Pythium aphanidermatum. The application of Trichoderma did not significantly reduce disease severity. However, the mixed hardwood biochar (HB) mixed at 20% by volume could replace peat moss-based substrate to reduce poinsettia root rot disease caused by P. aphanidermatum without negatively affecting poinsettia plant growth. Incorporating HB by replacing 30% and 50% peat moss in the substrate could also reduce pepper blight disease caused by P. capsici.

Keywords: Disease control, Phytophthora capsica, Pythium aphanidermatum, hardwood biochar

>Identification of new crapemyrtle bark scale (Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae) hosts (Spiraea and Callicarpa) through DNA barcoding

Author: Runshi Xie, Bin Wu, Mengmeng Gu, Stacey R. Jones, James Robbins and Hongmin Qin

PP: Pages 138-143

Global trade and international travel have led to the establishment of invasive pests in territories outside the pests' normal range. We have been following the distribution of crapemyrtle bark scale (CMBS; Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae), an invasive insect first discovered in the United States in 2004. In addition to the rapid geographical expansion of the CMBS distribution, one crucial concern is its ability to infest a wide range of plant species, beyond its primary host - Lagerstroemia. By studying the molecular evidence, we revealed the genetic relationships of CMBS specimens from different geographical locations and hosts. Naturally occurring CMBS infestations were confirmed on a native plant species, American beautyberry (Callicarpa americana L.), and Spirea (Spiraea L.) in the United States. The new infestation of CMBS found on spiraea raises the alarm for the green industry that other economically important crops in the Rosaceae family might potentially

Keywords: Scale insect, CMBS, host range, phylogeny, species identification

Camellia propagation from cuttings

Author: Robert Black

PP: Pages 144-163

This paper describes the protocol for production of camellias from rooted cuttings. Camellia japonica, Camellia sasanqua, and hybrids are propagated by semi-hardwood cuttings. Cuttings are fully submerged in a 114 L (30-gal) tank of Jet-Ag® Solution (hydrogen peroxide, and peroxyacetic acid) to prevent diseases such as Pythium and Phytophthora. The semi-hardwood cuttings are trimmed to three or four leaves, approximately 15 cm (6-in.) in length, with green mottled tan or solid tan stems. The lower leaf is removed leaving a node about 2.5 cm (1-in.) from the base. No wounding is necessary. Bundles of cuttings are basal quick-dipped for 5-sec with 8,000 ppm IBA solution using Hortus IBA Water Soluble Salts® (20%). Misting is controlled with a Phytotronics® VPD clock to maintain well-hydrated unrooted cuttings. The misting system is composed of Tavlit® 866 mini-compact sprinklers. Mist applications are significantly reduced upon root initiation. Four weeks after root initiation, both C. sasanqua and C. japonica cultivars will have rooted, and misting is discontinued. Camellia japonica cultivars require six to eight weeks to initiate rooting.

Keywords: Camellia japonica, Camellia sasanqua, disbudding, herbicides, Hortus IBA Water Soluble Salts®, semi-hardwood cuttings, Jet-Ag®, propagation systems, production systems, pruning, vapor pressure deficit (VPD) controller, weed management

Keeping ornamental winners and losers in the record Texas freeze of February 15-21, 2021

Author: David Creech, Lais Machado and David Kulhavy

PP: Pages 164-170

There was a record 100-year freeze in Texas from 15-21 February 2021. Temperatures dropped as low as -20oC (-4oF). For landscape plants, going from Zone 8b to a 5 was a bit much. Besides the low temperatures, the heavy ice and snow load further stressed plants in the Pineywoods of East Texas. We are developing a tome that describes the immediate and long-term impact of winter storm Uri on the Texas landscape. Recording a list of plants that thrived, survived or died would be useful to future landscape planners. While the tolerance of common plants was evaluated, the focus was on rarely encountered ornamentals. Stephen F. Austin Gardens (SFA) Gardens is a perfect platform to deliver freeze data - because it is a collector’s garden of exotic plants. Hundreds of new plants are added to the landscape each year, which is a perfect crucible to test a wide variety of ornamentals exposed to extreme temperatures. The focus of this paper is limited to a few select genera, particularly those with adequate numbers for evaluation at SFA Gardens.

Keywords: Hundred-year freeze, tome, low-temperature - woody ornamental plant stress tolerance, plant evaluations

Cutting propagation of Magnolia grandiflora

Author: John Davy

PP: Pages 171-176

In northwest Florida (Zone 8B), propagation of Magnolia grandiflora with semi-hardwood cuttings is done from 15 August to 30 November (first frost), depending on the cultivar. Soil mix and flats are drenched with the fungicide, Subdue®, before sticking. Cuttings are 10-15 cm (4-6 in.) in length, with bottom 1-2 leaves removed. Cuttings are scored 2.5 cm (1-in.) on one side, then quick-dipped for 30-sec in 10,000 ppm indole-butyric acid with potassium salt (K-IBA). ‘Brackens Brown Beauty’ is also treated with 500 ppm naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Avoiding over-watering cuttings is critical. Foliar application of Peters® N-P-K is applied to cuttings at low rates after callus develops. After adventitious roots appear, cuttings are drenched with the fungicide, Safari®. Rooting success rates of cultivars are as follows: ‘Claudia Wannamaker’ 95-100%, ‘DD Blanchard’ 95-100%, ‘Kay Parris’ 80-95%, ‘Bracken’s Brown Beauty’ 70-85%, ‘Little Gem’ 60-95%, ‘Opal Beach’80-90%, and ‘Seagrove’ 80-95%.

Keywords: Indolebutyric acid (IBA), naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), semi-hardwood cuttings, Southern Magnolia.

Connecting veterans to horticulture

Author: Robert Elliot and Lis Meyer

PP: Pages 177-182

Agriculture, the green industry and horticulture can help returning veterans integrate back into civilian life with productive careers. Likewise, the human talent and skill-sets that veterans offer can be a great employee resource for the green industry. After 15-years of service, veteran Robert Elliott returned to his family farm and developed a profitable small farming operation. Suicide is the second leading cause of death in the US military. His success (“Farming saved my life”) – the story of a veteran finding peace and a life worth living with real purpose - brought a flood of veterans to Robert’s doorstep to learn how to become farmers. Robert began working with veterans across the country and developing programs for those interested in agriculture. He also continued with his own education, pursuing a B.S. in Biological and Agricultural Engineering with a minor in Horticultural Science at North Carolina State University (NCSU). Lis Meyer of NCSU not only introduced him to the possibilities of plant propagation as a science, but also career opportunities in the nursery industry. One of the initial programs Robert started in his efforts to connect veterans with agriculture, which first involved Lis - was the Soldier to Agriculture Program (STAG) at NCSU. Robert went on to also start the Veterans Farm of North Carolina (VFNC), which provides consultation and training to veterans and transitioning military on agricultural production methods of all scales and sizes. Its newest program is a six-month, hands-on farm training program known as the Veterans Agricultural Training and Education Program (VATEP).

Keywords: Career Skills Program (CSP), Soldier to Agriculture Program (STAG), Transition Assistance Program (TAPS), leadership, nursery industry profession, superior problem-solving skills, work ethic, Veteran’s Farm of North Carolina, Inc. (VFNC), Veterans Agricultural Training and Education Program (VATEP)

35-Years of propagation in 30 minutes – Tricks and tips

Author: Maarten van der Giessen

PP: Pages 183-195

Van der Giessen Nursery is a 20-ha (50-ac) wholesale liner and container growing operation with a wide pallet of woody ornamental plants. We produce over two million liners a year. Our timeline for propagation begins in January and ends in December. We have five keys to successful propagation: 1. use juvenile stock -if limited to field grown material, it is best to coppice the material and take the resulting flush; 2. proper nutrition and healthy stock are critical - a nutritionally-stressed cutting will never make a good liner; 3. know what growth stage is best to maximize rooting success: softwood, semi-hardwood, or hardwood cuttings; 4. know the optimal window of opportunity to take successful cuttings; and 5. if you have correctly managed 1-4, then optimize use of rooting hormones. Recommendations are given on propagation of select species.

Keywords: Liner production, Semmes, Alabama nursery industry, propagation media, Phytotronics 1626 Clock® mist controller, side-veneer graft, softwood, semi-hardwood and hardwood cuttings, potassium salt-Indole-butyric acid (K-IBA)

The does and don’ts of using biologicals

Author: Chris Hayes

PP: Pages 196-202

Nursery producers can use biologicals in integrated pest management (IPM) or Integrated Plant Health Management (IPHM) programs as stand-alone methods, or to complement chemical products for protecting plants from disease, insects, mites, nematodes, weeds – and other pests. Biologicals for plant pest control are derived from microorganisms, plant extracts, beneficial insects and organic matter. This paper describes how to properly use biologicals in IPM systems for green industry crops.

Keywords: IPM, integrated pest management, IPHM, integrated plant health manage-ment, Trichoderma harzianum

IPPS European Exchange 2019

Author: Shea A. Keene

PP: Pages 203-216

In 2019, I was selected by the IPPS-Southern Region for the Early-Career Professional International Exchange Program to attend the European Region’s annual meeting in Stratford-upon-Avon, England. The exchange program was one of the most amazing and impactful experiences of my entire life. I am so grateful for IPPS for giving me this once-in-a-lifetime opportunity, and for my wonderful hosts, IPPS International Chair Tim Lawrance-Owen and his wife, Annette. I have documented my exchange program experiences in this paper, including the gardens and nurseries I visited, the European Region’s conference, and the final days of my trip in London.

Keywords: IPPS-Southern Region, Early-Career Professional International Exchange Program, English nurseries and gardens, Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) Garden at Wisley, IPPS-European Region Conference

Keeping consumer demand high: Riding the green wave of the COVID-19 garden explosion

Author: Heather Kirk-Ballard

PP: Pages 217-221

During the Covid-19 pandemic as the nation enforced a precautionary lockdown to help prevent the spread of infection, many households became restless. While other businesses were experiencing hardships because of shutdowns, the green industry was in high demand with many reporting significant gains in profits and sales. Garden stores reported high demand for vegetable crops, edibles, seeds and all gardening supplies and the Cooperative Extension Service also experienced an increase in demand for information on home gardening. In the 2018 National Garden Survey conducted by the Garden Media Group, 12 million Americans said, “I’m too busy to have much time for gardening.” (Garden Media Group, 2018). Now with time on their hands, Americans began gardening in droves and this is good news for the green industry.

Keywords: Covid-19, home gardening, green industry, new gardeners, increased plant demand, increased sales

Is your fertility program stuck in the 1950’s? well, it should be! Nutritional approach to passive plant pest immunity

Author: Michael Roe

PP: Pages 222-234

Many green industry production systems are not sustainable and inherently wrong. Changes are needed in our nutritional and chemical programs that enhance sustainability: environmentally, economically and culturally. It is possible to manage plant nutrition in such a way that plants become more resistant to insects and diseases. The plant health pyramid from Advancing Eco Agriculture® illustrates what we are trying to achieve in terms of plant growth and health. Mineral nutrition and microbiology are the foundation of plant immunity and pest resistance.

Base Saturation or “ideal ratios of cations” in the soil/ container media are critical for balanced plant nutrition, health and pest resistance. Testing the leaf Brix index of plant sap with a refractometer is a quick way to determine plant health. The leaf Brix level/insect relation chart is an excellent tool for gauging plant health and pest resistance. A low leaf Brix level (0-6) indicates plant susceptibility, whereas plants are largely resistant to insects and disease at Brix levels 12 to 14. Optimizing the plant nutrient levels and minimizing pesticide usage - can significantly increase photosynthesis, Brix levels – and increase pest and disease resistance.

Keywords: Brix, disease and pest resistance, fertilizer systems, integrated pest manage-ment, microbiology, mineral nutrition, plant health, point of deliquescence, reducing plant stress

Weed control in propagation: Hand weeding is NOT the only option

Author: Anthony Witcher and Isha Poudel

PP: Pages 235-241

Weed control in nursery crop propagation is difficult due to the limited methods that are safe and effective. Hand weeding is labor intensive and time consuming and the availability of agriculture labor has become limited in recent years. Adoption of sanitation practices helps minimize weed infestations, but utilization of pre-emergent herbicides and mulches may be a viable weed control method in propagation. Although certain pre-emergent herbicides may cause injury to seedlings and rooting cuttings, there are non-root-inhibiting herbicides that may be safe for use in propagation. Three studies were conducted evaluating pre-emergent herbicides and mulches in seedling and stem-cutting propagation in small diameter containers. For seedling propagation, we found that isoxaben (Gallery) was safe when applied to small seedlings of several tree species after transplant and several pre-emergent herbicides were safe when applied prior to germination of oak seeds. For stem cutting propagation, oxadiazon+ox-yfluorfen (Regal O-O) provided broad spectrum weed and was safe when applied 2 weeks after sticking cuttings of several crop species. Pine pellet mulch provided excellent weed control at 0.5-inch depth with no impact to cutting root development.

Keywords: Mulch, pre-emergent herbicide, seedlings, stem cuttings