Volume 14

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Author: Ian F. Mackay

PP: 54

Before getting too deep into this talk perhaps I had better introduce myself. While at one time I was the propagator of a large nursery, for the last 12 years I have not produced a saleable crop of anything and I have had more failures than successes. Yet I am still employed and not by a charity organization. Indeed I might say that my employers have a very high regard for the value of a dollar.

What I have been doing is research on the nursery level. A broader and more embracing job than the name implies. And also a job that is not as common as it should be.

Horticultural research is one of the oldest branches of research in existence. Earliest man carried on research every time he tried a new plant or berry for his menu. It must have been a hazardous job and some undoubtedly did not live to carry cut any more experiments.

Early man also experimented and found that some plants have healing properties. As a result of which he started a line of research which continues to this day. This



PP: 104

General interest among fruit growers in the whole field of stock - scion effects is very high. Cognizant of this interest the Dwarf Fruit Tree Association of America sponsored two group tours of the European fruit growing industry this summer. I had the good fortune to be a member of one of these groups and visited both research institutions and private growers in some of Europe?s most concentrated fruit areas. A very great deal has already been written about clonal rootstocks and different scion varieties and their relation to one another. I will therefore attempt to limit my comments to some of the stock ? scion effects we encountered, that, though certainly not new, are receiving considerable attention at the present time in Europe.

Our group was mainly concerned with apples and consequently most of my observations will be on apples. This is not unfortunate because no other plant has undergone so much intensive study or been developed to such a high degree of refinement in


Author: Robert C. Dewilde

PP: 107


The common lilac Syringa vulgaris has been grown in gardens of the world for centuries. The first botanical description was written by a French naturalist in the year 1554. During the seventeenth century, English gardens were enriched with this shrub from seed collected in the lilac's native habitat of Rumania, Bulgaria, and Greece. The lilac was one of the first ornamentals brought to America by the early settlers. The beauty of lilacs has been expressed in poems and songs and is strongly associated with home, family, and memories of spring. There is little doubt that nurserymen can find the production of lilacs and the introduction of superior varieties quite rewarding.


Author: Alfred J. Fordham

PP: 115

This series of slides will show some abnormal conifers which originated spontaneously in Massachusetts.

Within fifty yards of this solitary fifty-foot tall Canadian hemlock, nine slow-growing forms similar in character, were discovered. No other probable parent tree or the remains of one that might have fallen, could be found within a distance of one quarter of a mile. Each abnormal plant was characterized by a single trunk, short branched habit of growth, and small needles darker than usual in color. Although the plants ranged in size from three to five feet tall, they could well be of a like age estimated at about thirty-five years. The parent tree was searched carefully for a witches' broom or the remnants of one, with the thought that seeds producing the variants might have originated in this way. However, no evidence of a broom could be detected.

Canadian hemlock has produced a multitude of slow-growing genetic forms. As an indication of this abundance the Arnold Arboretum in


Author: Alfred J. Fordham

PP: 116

Last year at the St. Louis Meeting, I presented a series of slides depicting this white pine witches'-broom which grows in the Berkshire Hills of western Massachusetts. It has fruited and shed seeds for many years. Within its dispersal area over 200 genetically dwarf forms were found. In the intervening year some of its seeds have been germinated thereby providing an opportunity to observe the behavior of its progeny. The next slide shows the small twig and cone characteristics of the broom when compared with those of normal pine. These cones when compared with those taken from a normal tree show the variety of subnormal sizes which it produced.

Far fewer viable seeds were produced than would be expected in normal cones for many were abortive. However, 154 were acquired from the limited number of cones available.

On September 20, 1963 the seeds were separated into two lots and started on a stratification period of three months at 40 degrees. The first lot contained 135 seeds while the


Author: Wesley P. Hackett

PP: 119

The physiology or internal functioning of plants changes as they progress from seedlings to maturity. These internal, physiological changes are sometimes manifested by a series of marked changes in morphological characters and rate of growth. Examples of morphological characters which change with maturation are leaf shape and arrangement, stem and leaf coloration, habit of growth and degree of thorniness. English ivy (Hedera helix) is a good example of a plant which exhibits marked changes in morphology with maturation. As a seedling and for many years thereafter, it is a vine with lobed leaves, reddish stem, dorsa-ventral leaf arrangement, and aerial roots. Mature ivy plants are woody shrubs with entire oval leaves, green stems, spiral leaf arrangement and no aerial roots. In other plants, however, the morphological differences may be so slight and gradual that they are not apparent to the casual observer. Another indicator of physiological change with maturity is the greater tendency

Author: John A. Weidhaas Jr

PP: 123

This paper is essentially a review of research and a progress report on systemic insecticides as they may be used on woody ornamental plants. The wording in the title was chosen to emphasize the complex nature of systemics in relation to conventional contact insecticides which are simply diluted to the proper degree and applied externally on plants. My objective here is to discuss the nature of systemic insecticides as they are used on trees and shrubs, the knowledge gained to date, and the research needs of the future if systemics are to become useful tools of the plant propagator.

A systemic insecticide was defined by Bennett in 1949 as a substance which is absorbed and translocated to other parts of the plant rendering it insecticidal. Such a definition does not include chemicals which are simply absorbed into the plant, but not translocated. Some insecticide compounds are soluble in plant lipoids and, therefore, are absorbed into plant tissue (Gunther and Blinn, 1956).



Author: Harold Pellett

PP: 131

The Roadside Improvement section of the Nebraska Department of Roads was reactivated in 1961 and since then has been quite active in landscape plantings along our developing Interstate 80. At present, 70 miles of interstate right of way have been landscaped and 150 miles have been seeded to grass mixtures. The average costs of the landscape plantings are approximately $14,000 per mile and $11,000 per major interchange in urban areas, and $1,000 per mile and $7,500 per interchange in rural areas.

The rest area facilities being developed by our roads department are very modern. These facilities contain sheltered picnic tables and a heated information rest room building with flush toilets. In the Platte river valley, the water table is just a few feet below the surface and in this area, the road base is constructed by pumping sand to the area. This process leaves a string of sand pit lakes along the interstate route. Many of the rest areas in the Platte Valley are being


Author: Wolfgang Matzke

PP: 133

Within the short 15 minutes allowed for my paper, I can only present a brief outline of a very interesting new concept of plant growing. This concept was not originated by a nurseryman, but by an industrial engineer who derived the idea of continuous plant production from his experience with the operation of machines and control instruments in the steel and metal industry.

All industrial production of any importance uses automatically controlled conveyor systems. The raw materials are continuously fed in on one side and the finished product emerges by the time all the programmed stages have been completed. Furthermore in industrial production every phase must be clearly comprehensive and the progress within a given time must be planned and controlled.

Mr. Ruthner, the Austrian engineer and inventor of the Tower Greenhouse (TGH), developed the idea of setting the plants on a space-filling conveyor system and pass through a number of chambers each providing for a different —


Author: G.L. Good, H.B. Tukey Jr

PP: 138


Mist propagation is not a strange term to the International Plant Propagators' Society. In the past 25 years the development of mist has enabled the propagator to root softwood, semi-hardwood, and many other difficult to root cuttings of various plant species. By spraying water into the air and maintaining a film on the cuttings themselves, transpiration is reduced. In this way, the turgidity of the cutting is maintained which is essential for root formation. But by allowing water to come in contact with the surface of the cuttings, leaching of organic and inorganic nutrients from within the plant tissue can occur.

Leaching of metabolites from intact plants has long been recognized. A great diversity of organic and inorganic materials can be leached from a wide range of plant species, and these losses are influenced by many factors (Tukey 1962). Many workers have published evidence that the mineral nutrient content of cuttings was lowered due to the leaching effects of


Author: Joseph C. McDaniel

PP: 143

While hackberries have been relegated to a place of little importance by most recent writers on ornamental trees, I believe it is time that propagators gave a fresh look at some of the things available in the genus Celtis.

I have been doing this, particularly in east central Illinois, since the elm diseases took practically all our native Ulmus off the local streets. We can see now a great many old and younger hackberries, which offer much as hardy, adaptable shade trees for yards, streets and roadsides. Many of them, in my opinion, give a better year-round effect than Ulmus americana, and some clones are very elm-like in general habit. These include some C. occidentalis which are but slightly affected by the hackberry witches'-broom disease. C. laevigata, native in southern and extreme western Illinois is another species of promise, almost never disfigured by witches'-broom. Besides these two, I shall mention some other species with ornamental potentialities for eastern and southern


Author: Henry M. Cathey

PP: 60

Many growers have already made great advances in accelerating handling of woody plants. Most growers still aim their material towards seasonal sales for plants to be used as foundation plantings for the home, business, or factory. Growers must continue to service the landscape horticulturist but they also must service markets with cuttings and liners of woody plants that have been regulated. Regulated liners will provide plants for decoration inside the home and also can be used as plantings outside the home. Many berried or flowering plants are now on the market that can also serve as decorative house plants. Through the years, the hydrangea, gardenia, and azalea varieties selected for inside culture have lacked hardiness for garden use. With advances in regulating growth of many woody plants, the propagator again has the opportunity to service a new market area and to produce useful plants in a minimum time. Pacing growth and development of woody plants is possible through procedures already

Author: W.A. Cumming

PP: 146

In 1949 we introduced Toba hawthorn which was the result of a cross between Crataegus oxyacantha ‘Paul's Scarlet’ and the native species Crataegus succulenta. This new cultivar gained recognition quickly in those areas where nurserymen were already propagating hawthorn cultivars and had a reasonably satisfactory rootstock available. On the Canadian prairies, from whence it was introduced, its performance was disappointing, largely because no satisfactory rootstock was available on which to propagate it. Seedlings of our two native hawthorn species, C. chrysocarpa and c. succulenta, which were the most readily available, are difficult to transplant successfully and provide poor anchorage, because of their deep, straight, tap root systems.

In the spring of 1955 we happened to have a surplus of seedlings of C. arnoldiana. Two hundred and thirty of these were lined out and budded in August of that year to 27 different species including C. mordenensis ‘Toba’. The catch was only 60% but it was


Author: Ben Davis II

PP: 149

The first step in nursery propagation of Carpathian Walnuts is, thorough and adequate soil preparation. The site chosen for planting may have swags or low places that will need leveling. Either a dozer blade or a large float may be used to fill in the swags so that water will not stand in the field. After the site is properly leveled it must be broken. At Ozark Nurseries we use a large offset disc, which cuts 9½ feet wide and 10 to 12 inches deep. The disc has the advantage of chopping up any trash present, while breaking the ground. After the ground has been broken, and the trash worked into the soil, some type of subsoiling should be done. This allows the ground to store up water during heavy rains and give it back to the plants during dry weather. The loosened soil also encourages better growth and makes digging operations easier when the trees are ready for sale. For nut trees, we use a large ripper which breaks up the soil to a depth of 36 inches. After this is done, it is

Author: Gayle Fleming, Charles E. Hess

PP: 153

Sphagnum moss is used extensively as a medium for seed germination because of its ability to prevent damping off. Up to a few months ago, it had not been established whether the fungistatic activity of the sphagnum moss was due to environmental conditions, such as a low pH value, or that it contained a specific fungistatic substance. During the past summer it has been possible to demonstrate that the activity is due to a specific fungistatic substance or substances.

Aqueous, alcoholic, and acetone extracts were prepared from ground sphagnum moss. A highly active substance(s) was extracted with 50% ethanol or with acetone. The substance(s) was partially purified by paper and thin layer chromatography. Pythium ultimum was used as the test organism to locate the fungistatic substance on the chromatogram.

During the extraction studies, bacteria were isolated from the water extract which produced a very powerful fungistatic substance. All growth of Phythium was blocked for several centimeters


Author: Frank Turner

PP: 154

This is an examination of at least two sets of working arrangements and aims for results that propagators have. Some of us are connected with commercial establishments, where factors of quantity and costs are paramount. Others are members of institutional type staffs. These latter often represent the more altruistic value of the search of knowledge for its own sake and the value of teaching others.

This comparison is made, not for presenting one of these types of endeavor as either inferior or superior to the other, but in the hope that at least partial survey will bring about understanding and mutual advantage on both sides of the picture.

Many of the plant subjects we work with are not stable. Where the instability is understood and laid down in references it would appear that research oriented organizations with more knowledgeable chiefs and staff members would be better equipped to cope with the maintaining of strains and types of plants.

This peculiarity regarding the plants sometimes goes to


Author: Harold Davidson, Arthur Olney

PP: 156

Investigators have found that certain inherent characteristics of plants influence their rootability. Among the characteristics affecting rooting are inherited clonal variations and sexual differences.

The influence of sex in the propagation of plants by cottage has received very little attention. Snow (9) reported that cuttings selected from male trees of the Red Maple rooted at a higher percentage than did cuttings selected from female trees. Neal et al (4) found that in Ilex verticillata male cuttings taken at certain times of the year rooted better than comparable female cuttings. In a somewhat different morphological situation, O'Rourke (5) reported that vegetative wood of Blueberry rooted better than flowering wood.

Since a number of propagators (7, 8, 10) have made reference to the fact that various clones of Taxus are difficult to root, it was decided to conduct an experiment to determine if there was a difference in the rootability of Taxus clones and to see if the difference


Author: R.M. Girouard, C.E. Hess

PP: 162

  1. Introduction
  2. The vegetative propagation of plants by cuttings has attracted the attention of commercial propagators and research workers for many years. As a method of reproduction it has varying degrees of success depending upon the species, cultivar, clone, or growth phase of the plant used (1, 6). Internal and external factors and interactions of these influence the initiation of roots on cuttings (6, 7, 8). The root promoting substances or cofactors, extracted and characterized by Hess (4, 5) are examples of internal factors. Recently the movement of these substances in a downward direction as influenced by the presence or absence of leaves on stem cuttings of juvenile English ivy, was studied. It is this work which we would like to review at this time.

  3. Materials and Methods
  4. To determine the activity of substances with root promoting properties, mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) seedlings were grown in a controlled environment chamber. At the end of ten days the seedlings were cut


Author: Donald Wedge

PP: 166

The common Lilac, Syringa vulgaris, is one of the most popular and prominent shrubs. It succeeds in all but the warmest sections of this continent and grows particularly well in the colder areas. A Lilac will out live the person who plants it and will outlast the house near which it is planted.

Our nursery has grown Hybrid Lilac since 1902. In 1935, realizing many nurseries were having difficulties propagating Lilac and we were having fair success, we decided to specialize in Hybrid Lilac and stepped up our propagation. For the past 12 years we have grafted 120,000 to 150,000 Lilac per year, depending on our balanced supply of scion wood which has been a limiting factor, growing mainly for other nurseries under contract. We are now growing 38 out of the 40 top A rated varieties in the 1953 list of The "100 best Lilac for America" and 17 the 39 B rated varieties, and 3 varieties we believe to be on the way up.

The next few slides will give you some idea of contrasting color combinations


Author: Klaas Van Hof

PP: 169

I want to emphasize that care must be taken in the application of Simazine 80W. Our application is usually on the light side, and we do not try to attain 100 % control for twelve months. It is our belief that if we can get reasonable control for the Spring and early summer months, that this gives us the opportunity to exert all our efforts on shipping and planting without the fear of being choked with weeds. We normally apply Simazine in the later part of November on plants that have been established for one year. I have no doubt that with another application in the Spring we could get that 100% control, but we feel that the chemical is relatively new and hasn't been tested long enough to make us feel that there will not be, a build-up.

We have used Simazine 8OW for five years and have always had complete control of chick-weed, most of the fall grasses, and the early summer weeds. Although Simazine is primarily a pre-emergence herbicide it will eradicate mature chick-weed. I


Author: Leslie Hancock

PP: 173

The subject on which I have been listed to speak is somewhat misleading as I am by no means an authority on either over-wintering or early shipping. Nevertheless, I am keenly interested in both, first as a plantsman to bring material readied for sale through the winter in good health, and, secondly to get on with the job of distribution well ahead of the time we should be replanting the nursery.

There are many nurserymen who will consider that this problem has been solved, for we already have huge storages where millions of plants are stacked in shingle tow and shipped to their destination weeks ahead of any chance to have them freshly dig from the open.

The success of these storages from the dollars and cents point of view is conceded, but I remain unconvinced that they are in the best interest of the plants. There have been too many experiences of plants arriving looking normally healthy, yet failing later to leaf out; too many shipments with etiolated white young growth, that have


Author: W.E. Cunningham

PP: 176

In recent years this subject has been discussed at great length by many speakers, and the subject still bears interest because growers are deeply concerned about ways and means of successfully over-wintering container-grown plants. Perhaps my subject should be titled, ‘controlling environment in poly structures.’

I hope you will forgive me if I seem rather brusque in this opinion, but I believe the problem of winter-storage of plants in containers is an elementary one. Permit me to say, when plant materials are grown in containers and winter-stored above ground, then subjected to wide temperature extremes, often coupled with high wind, we cannot expect 100% survival every winter. In simple terms, the environment is unsatisfactory.

What is the answer? In my opinion any nursery stock worth propagating and growing should not be subjected to deep-freeze conditions while above ground. There's no doubt the market for nursery stock in containers will be even greater in the future, so let's


Author: Henry H. Chase

PP: 67

Layering is the development of roots on a stem while it is still attached to the parent plant. The detached stem, after rooting, becomes a new plant growing on its own roots.

Our method is mound layering, in which the rooting medium is well rotted sawdust instead of soil, and in which the stems remain erect during the rooting process.

We have probably 500 stool plants, the oldest of which are over fifty years old, and we will take an average of about 45 layers from each plant, for an annual production of about 20,000 rooted layers. The oldest plants produce the most stems.

We start our layering in late June or early July, when the stems have obtained a height of about four feet, and a caliper


Author: William Flemer III

PP: 177

At the time of the publication of Laurie and Chadwick's The Modern Nursery in 1931 and for countless years before, there would have been hesitation in answering affirmatively the question which forms this title of this paper. Agricultural and horticultural experience had long endorsed the practice of cultivating the soil not only to control weeds, but to conserve soil moisture during summer dry periods.

So the matter rested until the advent of the modern herbicides which for the first time made it possible to control and virtually eliminate weeds in crop rows without even a single cultivation during the growing period. Soil scientists at many experiment stations began to question whether there was any value to cultivation at all, now that weeds could be suppressed by herbicides, and experiments seemed to show that soil moisture was depleted at a greater rate from cultivated than from undisturbed soil.

The coming of the herbicides was enthusiastically received in the nursery world as well


Author: Arie J. Radder

PP: 183

The material which I will offer for your recognition are the high lights of the discussions on the storage of B and B Plant Materials. There seemed to be an overall thread or feeling that the presence of light is apparently not a factor in winter storage, if the temperature is maintained at 35° F. or less, and number two, the humidity, is kept close to 100% at all times.

In the discussions that developed this humidity factor was approached from a number of different angles, such as syringing, misting, wetting, and a variety of other details but primarily as I visualize it, and recognize it, it was a matter of some how or another of maintaining a humidity factor close to 100% at all times. Now the structures that came out in this discussion by and large were vapor proofed and they varied considerably. A good deal of emphasis developed out of the area of the Connecticut River Valley where tobacco industry for some reason or other has moved into the production of nursery


Author: Donald Cation

PP: 185

Viruses are submicroscopic infectious entities that multiply intracellularly and are potentially pathogenic. It is well known that viruses are extremely small; they get inside a plant by one means or another and multiply only inside living cells. Infectiousness means that they can spread, enter and reside within a plant. Pathogenic means disease producing, resulting in an abnormality that we can see or detect, such as lack of chlorophyll as seen in rings or mottles, dead spots in leaves, dead cells within the plant, reduced size or oversize of cells, excessive or reduced cell division or stunting of plants.

Viruses are only potentially disease producing. They can infect a plant, increase in number and spread from cell to cell and may or may not cause disease in the process. Most of us are aware that viruses cause destructive or even mild diseases, but many are not aware that viruses ran exist in certain plants without causing recognizable disease. In such cases the virus is said to


Author: F.O. Lanphear

PP: 188

We had a very interesting discussion on how critical is the time of taking of cuttings. To begin with Dr. Lanphear from Purdue presented some general facts on a few of the difficult-to-root plants and the critical importance of timing in the taking of cuttings of these. Two examples that he gave were the umbrella pine — as you all recall Sidney Waxman a few meetings back told us about taking cuttings on certain time in late March to get good rooting. The time was very critical, a few weeks prior or a few weeks past the optimum time the rooting difference was terrific. Good rooting at the proper time and practically no rooting if it were too early or too late. Another thing that was mentioned by Dr. Lanphear was the deciduous azaleas which are very critical in the timing as far as taking cuttings to get successful rooting. Another example of timing and the use of supplemental lighting was brought out. The fact that Japanese yew cuttings taken in late winter and given supplemental light.

Author: Hugh Steavenson

PP: 190

MODERATOR ROLLER: The question and answer part of our program will be conducted by the moderator of all moderators, Mr. Hugh Steavenson.

Author: Gustav A.L. Mehlquist

PP: 199

Most nurserymen who have tried to carry a reasonably complete line of Rhododendrons and Azaleas have probably found, first, that a fairly large number of varieties are required and, secondly, that in the Northeast at least it is difficult to obtain dependable varieties in each category. Assuming that one wishes to provide at least four colors say — red, white, pink, and blue (lavender) during the main flowering season, it would be necessary to have an early, a mid-season, and a late variety in each color. This alone would bring the number to twelve; and if one were to consider having each of these in a dwarf, a medium and a tall variety, the number would rise to thirty-six. One need only to be aware of the fact that there is considerable variation in texture and flower size to realize that a, really complete assortment of varieties would be large indeed.

Unfortunately, it is difficult to find dependable varieties in all these categories. Of course, it is also difficult to define


Author: Thomas S. Pinney Jr

PP: 204

Hand weeding of seedbed areas is a costly operation. It will reduce our firm's profits this year by $4,435.13. This figure represents only the direct labor costs and doesn't include applicable overhead items such as social security, workman's compensation, group insurance, etc.

Our cost estimating system reveals some rather interesting facts concerning the cost of hand weeding our seedlings. Although our field inventory showed we had approximately 5,750,000 salable seedlings as of August 15th, 1964, past sales records and transplant production schedules indicated that we could expect to market or use only 3,450,000 of these seedlings. This represents just 60% of our original inventory! The difference is mainly caused by: a. over production of specific items due to lack of market forecasts, coupled with inadequate preparation and use of production schedules. b. destroying of desirable seedlings in the hand weeding operation. c. weed competition. d. winter kill. Since the field


Author: John B. Roller

PP: 219

At the meeting of the Eastern Region in St. Louis last December, it was decided that since the visiting presidents of the respective regions were more or less a necessary evil, they should do a little something. It provides a reason and an alibi for wanting to come and visit the meeting of the Western Region. Bill Curtis suggested for me a topic titled "Texas Tips" Now, coming to California to give tips on plant propagation and production is like going to Detroit to tell how to build automobiles because California is considered to be a leader in this field. So it caused considerable thought as to what I could say that would be helpful. I came up with two or three suggestions that I hope you will find interesting.

California sends nearly 3 million plants annually to Texas. Among the many varieties sent there is hibiscus, particularly tree hibiscus. Now the tree hibiscus that I noticed in greatest quantities were not necessarily the most beautiful varieties and were on their own roots. I


Author: Oliver A. Batcheller

PP: 222

With the enthusiasm of "Youth" and the optimism of a "Freshman," I started on my sabbatical leave with the idea of comparing "Horticultural Procedures in Central Europe with those in the United States."

My colleagues had given me names and addresses, and by contacting the Ministries of Agriculture and Education, I was able to make appointments and have interviews at 28 schools, colleges, and universities where horticulture was taught. I also visited 51 nurseries, 22 arboretums or parks, 16 horticultural markets, 16 private gardens, and 8 flower shows or fairs. In all I drove 5,892 miles.

The trip in the United States included 34 schools, colleges, and universities in those states which lead in the production of horticultural crops. Needless to say, I visited many nurseries parks and arboretums. In all I took 600 colored slides, 400 black and white pictures, and tape-recorded all of my interviews. From these tapes I have made four complete factual notebooks.

In the allotted time


Author: William E. Snyder

PP: 227

1Originally presented at the 13th Annual Meeting, Eastern Region, St Louis, Missouri, December 7, 1963 and published in Proceedings Annual Meeting, International Plant Propagators' Society 1963 13 153–158.

Author: Arthur S. Lieberman

PP: 70

In the past several years, ericaceous plants have become increasingly popular in landscape plantings on New York State home properties. Here, Rhododendrons, Mountain Laurel, and Pieris essentially reach their northern limit of hardiness.

In a survey conducted through the New York State Nursery Notes in 1962 to which 90 nurserymen responded, 80 replies indicated many nurserymen growing Rhododendrons and Azaleas. In New York State, the sale of broadleaf evergreens, many of which are ericaceous plants, increased from 234,000 in 1949 to 615,000 in 1959.


Author: William E. Snyder

PP: 227

Although anti-transpirants have been known and used for more than fifteen years, there is little information based on experimentation concerning the effects of these materials on transpiration. Before considering some of our recent work with these anti-transpirants, let us briefly review what is meant by transpiration and how it occurs.

Transpiration is the evaporation of water from plant tissue. Basically it follows the physical laws which govern the evaporation of water; however, there are modifications based on plant structure. Woody twigs may lose water through the lenticels; however, the major path of water loss from the plant is through the leaves.

An examination of the structure of a leaf will help to understand transpiration more completely (Figure 1). Both the upper and lower surfaces of a leaf are covered with a layer of


Author: Dennison Morey

PP: 235

The following presentation will be less of a revelation than an appeal. My own experience is limited to a few empirical trials and word of mouth suggestions. It is my feeling that virtually every propagator who works with recalcitrant materials has done and discovered as much. This is particularly true of our academic colleagues who have the opportunity to test ideas which they conceive themselves and ideas stimulated by their more or less constant contact with researchers in the area of auxins and hormones and also contact with the literature.

Unfortunately for everyone this information is diffuse, and difficult to come by. Most of it is considered to be insufficient in content and scope for publication and when published it appears sparsely scattered and so lost from sight and mind.

My intention is to try accomplish two things today:

  1. To illustrate that this scattered information on the subject of my title is of tremendous potential value, and
  2. To convince this society that it would be

Author: Percy C. Everett

PP: 240

It has been my privilege to have been one of the few charter members of the International Plant Propagators' Society from the west in what is now mainly the Eastern Region. How I gathered that honor, I have never been quite sure. Perhaps it was because I subscribed to Trees Magazine, and Ed Scanlon sent me an application. I realized the value of this sort of organization because there was no other like it, and because, having troubles in our propagation department, I wanted some answers for my problems. This was the sort of Society badly needed by the propagator. Although unable to attend the annual Conferences because they were always held in the east during the winter, I gained a wealth of information from the Proceedings and the quarterly, The Plant Propagator. It was through that valuable contact, I became increasingly more interested in the Plant Propagators' Society, as it was then known.

A few years back, I received letters from some of my Davis friends that indicated there was


Author: Howard C. Brown

PP: 242

Teaching of Ornamental Horticulture on a college level, or on any other level for that matter, can be effective only if we have good students to teach. To me, it is the primary responsibility of an industry to do the recruiting of young people to train for key positions in the future of the industry. And in Ornamental Horticulture I don't believe that we have done a good job of recruiting.

When I was younger, growing up in the horticulture trade, one of the big crops was geraniums. It was a common practice for the grower to have all of his geranium plants in one house. As the plants came into bloom they would be sold — the earliest blooming and most vigorous plants selling first. Propagation was done by taking cuttings from those plants that were not sold and the grower's constant complaint was that strain was running out.

I believe that many of us in horticulture have done the same thing. Someone else has taken the early blooming and vigorous young people. Many of those coming into our


Author: Wesley N. Keys

PP: 246

After spending the first 36 years of my life as a dairy farmer in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, I spent 2 years teaching in a floral design school in Denver. I then went in the florist business with one of my students in Lompoc, California. In 1949 I went to work for the Burpee Seed Co. as their Double Petunia Propagator and Greenhouse Manager. In 1956 with the onset of Red Satin Petunia I went to work for Bodger Seeds Ltd. as their manager.

If you are successful with your present method of producing good seedlings, don't change; but if you are having trouble, the first thing to do is order Manual 23 (The U. C. System for Producing Container Grown Plants) available for $1.00 from any University of California Agriculture Station.

At Bodgers we grow about 5,000 seedling flats, 40,000 pricked off flats, plus 100,000 pots for seed production of F1 petunias, F1 snaps, Coleus, Impatiens and Gloxinias. In our greenhouses we produce seed with a wholesale value of nearly $750,000.

We use equal parts by


Author: Richard L. Plath

PP: 249

Propagation of Foliage Plants

To start with — all our propagating material and containers are steam sterilized.

Propagating Material — Olympic sand, peat moss. 50% peat moss and sand, and a modified soil containing peat moss, Colma sand (which is a very sandy loam) with a little super-phosphate added.

Propagation of Philodendron Cane — The cane is cut up into pieces, single eyes. These are potted in Olympic sand and placed in benches with bottom heat and a temperature of 65° maintained. After the plants are placed they are then covered to a depth of about ½ inch with peat moss, which is kept damp at all times.

Dieffenbachia and Chinese Evergreen — These are cut in pieces with one eye and placed in benches with about two inches of peat moss with eyes facing up if possible, especially the Dieffenbachia. If they are not placed this way they have a tendency to develop a curve in the cane when mature.

Dracaena Cane — The cane is cut into short pieces of about 3 inches long and laid on sand and covered


Author: Paul Ecke Jr

PP: 251

The present techniques used commercially for propagating poinsettias from softwood varies considerably from one part of the country to another. For all practical purposes, it can be said that propagation is practiced either in raised beds or in one of three types of pots — clay, plastic or transplanter peat. The media regardless of what system is being used will range from sand, sand and peat, sand and perlite, perlite alone, peat and perlite, peat and soil or soil and perlite, usually on a basis of 1 to 1 ratio by volume.

Various root-promoting materials are used, but it must be said that the greatest success is usually with materials of mild strength. There have been many cases where strong concentrations have caused unusual swelling, cracking and discoloration of the stem with unusual elongation between the nodes as well as petiole distortion in the form of a corkscrew effect. Various factors, such as daytime temperature and humidity, will play a role in whether or not a given


Author: Wilson McCahon

PP: 253

The two crops I would like to discuss with you are African Violets and Hydrangeas. Our production of Violets is a six months' program, and of the six months three and a half months are in the propagating house. The steps we take in preparing this house are:
  1. Heavy shade in summer with cold-water paint. Winter rains will reduce the shade in the winter, but the glass is never allowed to become bare.
  2. Sterilizing with steam all propagating mixes, flats, etc. Good sanitary house keeping procedure should follow.
  3. Humidity is kept high by wetting walks and under the benches, but never on leaves.
  4. Cuttings should be approximately three inches long and spaces sixty cuttings per flat, which is 23" X 41". They are left in flats until plants are large enough to shift into four inch pans for finishing.
  5. Temperature — 68°, night
                             80°, days

  6. Water temperature and house temperature never vary more than ten degrees.

    Hydrangeas, fit well into our program, and will work the same in most flowering


Author: Walter Mertz

PP: 255

Deciduous nurserymen are confronted with a myriad of problems, many of which are self inflicted. Not the least of these is our terminology or nursery jargon. I have always considered the terms "June bud" and "Yearling" as problems which the nursery industry has inflicted upon itself. A June bud may or may not be budded in June and a Yearling, which to the novice sounds like a year old tree, is actually a two year old nursery plant. Confusing as these terms are to some, they are the terms we use in the trade. Therefore, it might be fitting to start a discussion of deciduous June bud fruit trees with a working definition. I would like to suggest the following:
            The term "June Bud" refers to a budded deciduous
            fruit tree which is grown in a single season,
            achieved by early budding and rapid forcing tech-
            niques, produced primarily for the commercial or-
            chardist who frequently contracts for the trees
            prior to budding.

To further clarify our understanding of the term "June Bud," as


Author: Warren Carnefix

PP: 259

Peach root is used predominately for all varieties of peach, plum, and apricot except on heavy soil; then plum root is preferred. Lovell pits are used mostly and planted in rows 42 inches apart. Planting is done here about the first of October as we have two weeks of irrigation season left to soak the ground well before winter sets in. Pits are then covered with one inch of soil and 2 inches of sawdust. After this has been done a disc hiller is used to cover the sawdust 2 to 3 inches deep to prevent it from blowing away over winter and early spring.

Usually about the 10th of May the seedlings emerge. When the seedlings first come through the ground they are very susceptible to frost. Some years we have had as much as 80% loss by frost. This is why we plant 15 to 20 pits per foot. If germination is good and we have no frost we have far in excess of seedlings necessary for proper stands so we have to thin to 2½ to 3 inches apart. We have had, a spotted stand upon some occasions


Author: C.E. Heit

PP: 74

The importance of seed quality and germinative characteristics can not be stressed too strongly if the nurseryman or plant propagator desires the most success in his plant production program. For many years nurseryman thought that tree seed could not be tested accurately in the laboratory for germination as other kinds of seeds. Some seed dealers and collectors have also clung to this belief too long and have even passed such information to the seed buyer through their catalogues, correspondence or conversations.

To-day the seed laboratory which is properly equipped with modern, automatic light germinators and manned with experienced, ingenious seed analysts can test any kind of tree and shrub seed, no matter how dormant or how difficult they are to germinate. Our New York laboratory tests hundreds of tree and shrub seed yearly now on a service basis for nurserymen, seed dealers, collectors and private planters. Our seed testing service is maintained for residents of New York


Author: Harley Martin

PP: 261

Citrus plants are quite simple to reproduce. Grown from seed, they do not usually produce true-to-type progeny; therefore, to maintain genetic continuity vegetative techniques are required. The familiar "T" bud is used almost universally to bud onto a suitable rootstock seedling. Plants bud easily in early spring or fall. Bud stands in excess of 90% are easily obtained with most varieties.

If citrus plants are so easy to propagate, why discuss them at all? Well, they are easy to reproduce but any citrus nurseryman can recall a few nightmares about mutations and virus diseases. Anyone can propagate citrus plants if he can control temperature, but few of us in the business have escaped some problems with mutations, or virus. Thus, a citrus nurseryman's primary concern is not with reproducing trees but protecting his customer and the citrus industry from the spread of virus disease and introduction of mutant or variant strain.

The citrus industry does not have any of the virus


Author: David Armstrong

PP: 262

Viruses in stone fruits generally have serious economic effects ranging from complete loss of crop, if not death of the tree, to subtle loss of vigor that often has been wrongly attributed to "poor culture," if noticed at all. Freedom from most, if not all, viruses is apparently desirable.

Propagators have the basic responsibility to see that virus-free propagating materials are used. Once infected, the tree is infected for life for all practical purposes. Every propagator should be familiar with the symptoms of virus diseases, indexing techniques, and means of achieving and maintaining virus freedom.

Many viruses are significantly spread only through use of infected propagating material, and simple knowledge and use of virus-free propagating material is all that is necessary for control. Where natural spread occurs, control is achieved through isolation from infected hosts vectors.

The key to practical virus control by the propagator, however, is the obtaining of virus freedom in the first

PEACH BUD — GRAFT UNION ON Prunus besseyi1 2

Author: W.E. Fletcher

PP: 265


The use of selected rootstocks for dwarfing fruit and ornamental plants has been an established practice in Europe for many centuries (Dana, 1952 and Scholz, 1957). Only recently, however, has the use of dwarf fruit and ornamental plants gained widespread acceptance in the United States. This has developed primarily because of increased production costs in commercial orchards that have relatively tall bearing trees. Contemporary architecture, featuring the single-story dwelling, has also created a demand for low-growing trees and shrubs which will maintain the scale of the home-lot landscape complex.

As a result of continued research and experience, the use of vegetatively propagated dwarf fruit trees has gained popularity. Reasons include (1) reduction in operational cost and damage to trees as a part of the necessary cultural operations, (2) the facility of handling a greater number of varieties per unit area, (3) reduced injury to developing fruit and trees as a result


Author: P.H. Brydon

PP: 272

Today's discussion deals primarily with the propagation of Knaphill Azaleas Exbury strain, although I am sure the techniques described would prove successful with other deciduous azales. As a, preface, it might be of interest to review the background of this particular strain.

The Exbury azaleas are predominantly North American in specific origin. Of the nine species involved in their background, the following are native American — R. viscosum, R. nudiflorum, R. calendulaceum, R. speciosum, R. arborescens, and R. occidentale. Of the remaining three, R. molle comes from China, R. japonicum from Japan, and R. luteum from Eastern Europe. In the latter part of the eighteenth century R. viscosum, R. nudiflorum, R. calendulaceum, and R. speciosum were introduced into Europe when they were combined with the European R. luteum by Mortier of Belgium to produce the now famous Ghent azaleas. However, the real advance came about 1859 when Anthony Waterer of England recombined R. calendulaceum with


Author: Wesley P. Hackett, Dan Goldmann

PP: 276

The basic requirements for the successful propagation of broad-leaved evergreen plants by stem cuttings are as follows:
  1. The cutting must have the capacity to form roots when given the proper treatment and environmental conditions.
  2. The rooted cuttings must have a viable bud or the capacity to form one.
  3. The cutting must have enough leaf surface to promote rooting and the rooted cutting enough leaf surface to promote growth of the bud into a shoot.

If all three requirements are fulfilled a new plant will probably result. If one or more of these requirements is difficult to fulfill the plant will be difficult to propagate by stem cuttings. It is indicated by our general topic "Difficult to Root, General Ornamentals" that it is difficult to fulfill at least one of these requirements for the cuttage propagation of Xylosma congestum.

From personal experience and from observation of the results of other propagators it appears that there are two difficulties in the stem cuttage


Author: W.J. Libby

PP: 280

In 1929, J. F. Field stuck branches from nineteen-month-old Monterey pine in the damp, sandy soil in a New Zealand nursery. He found that they produced a large amount of callus in three months and rooted in five months, with roots as regular as those of seedlings. While he made no accurate count, he claims to have achieved at least 95% rooting on this first major attempt to root Monterey pine. These rooted cuttings were four inches tall in 1929, and averaged twelve feet tall in 1934 when he reported his studies in the New Zealand Journal of Forestry.

Based on Field's success, the Australians began rooting Monterey pine on a large scale. M. R. Jacobs reported on his extensive studies in the Australian Capital Territory in 1939. He predicted that 80% rooting success was possible with six-year-old trees, although few of his reported experiments reached this level of success. Like Field, he relied on an open nursery with little protection beyond maintaining the soil moist by


Author: Steve Fazio

PP: 288

The selection of evergreen shade trees for southern Arizona is limited due to temperature extremes between winter and summer. It is not unusual for temperatures to range above 100°F. in July and August, and there are instances when the temperature will go above 110° F. accompanied by low humidity and hot dry winds. At the other extreme, winter temperatures, will drop below 20° F. and remain at this low level for several hours. Survival of trees under these extremes of temperature is limited to a very few specimens including Rhus lancea, Olive, Pepper tree and Eucalyptus.

Eucalyptus rostrata and Eucalyptus polyanthemos represent two species which are in widespread use throughout the lower elevations of southern Arizona. They survive the environment conditions just mentioned, but there has been observed a noticeable change in the appearance of tree shape and foliage characteristics of trees growing in home yards and in parks.

Landscape architects have indicated a need, for


Author: Carl Zangger

PP: 290

Perry's Plants are primarily growers of bedding and ground cover Plants. We produce several hundred thousand flats of annual and perennial bedding plants as well as over 100 varieties of herbaceous and woody types of plants used for ground cover planting purposes. All of our production of ground cover plants, with a very small exception, is sold by the flat of 64 to 100 plants depending upon the variety. The great majority of these plants are sold at a price varying from .02c to .03c per plant. You can see that it then becomes necessary to produce saleable varieties at an absolute minimum of cost. This price includes not only the rooting and growing of the plant, but must also cover all other costs of doing business, and allow a small profit as well. Simplification and standardization of procedures is an absolute necessity. All varieties are rooted, grow on and sold in the same flat. We do not transplant rooted cuttings other than to fill in where a plant failed to root.

We use the U. C.


Author: Henry Ishida

PP: 293

We are primarily producers of bedding plants. We use the U. C. system of soil propagation. Soil is mixed in 2 transit type concrete mixers and steam sterilized in the mixers. One basic soil mix is used throughout the, nursery. Soil is dispensed into flats through a vibrator type of dispenser.

All up to date methods of moving and handling flats are utilized as handling is one of the largest items of expense.

We use conventional greenhouses, plastic houses and saran shade houses for growing. One innovation on our saran houses, we have them rigged so that the saran in 20' strips can be quickly taken down. This eliminates the necessity of moving the flats and saves much labor.

Accurate production and sales records are kept so that production may be closely regulated to the season.

Pest control is contracted to a specialist, who comes once a week to keep everything under control. Weeds are controlled using weed oil sprayed on through 3 gallon Hudson sprayers. An automatic clock


Author: I.E. Edwards

PP: 294

We grow about 40,000 flats of bedding plants and ground covers. The soil mix essentially is a U. C. mix—8 parts sand— parts peat—2 parts fir bark, plus additives. Starting pH is approximately 6½. Our water contains some lime and magnesium so the pH naturally goes up. All mixes are steamed to 190° F. Nitrogen is added before steaming. Ammonium Nitrate is fed using a Smith measure mix after transplanting.

Our houses are plastic, mostly poly and some, mylar. All are heated with suspended blowers. Houses are designed so that most of the condensation goes outside. All growing houses are drive thru using Electric trucks.

Seed Storage: Pansy, Viola, Larkspur and most perennials are stored in a refrigerator at approximately 40°F. Others are at room temperature and refrigerated in summer. Getting back to soil mixes, our seed soil is essentially the same as, the planting mix except no bark is used.

Due to our dry climate moisture at germination is our big problem especially in the fall.


Author: A.M.S. Pridham

PP: 86

Interest in propagating strains of disease resistant American Elm is evident in one of the first papers in recent years dealing with vegetative means of propagating Ulmus americana. Doctor T. W. Bretz (2), 1949, used leaf bud cuttings from 8 year old trees of 17 resistant selections. Cuttings were taken in May, treated with N.A.A. rooted to 60% in 6 weeks. Some rooting took place in all 17 strains as well as with U. pumila, U. Thomasii, and U. fulva, but not with Buisman Elm.

W. L. Dorman and M. A. McKenzie (4) treated new June shoots 4 to 6" in length with I.B.A. 50 ppm. These rooted 53% (untreated 34%) while root cuttings were useful in 97.5% of cuttings whose proximal end was exposed. Stem cuttings of U. pumila, U. parvifolia and U. japonica rooted from June cuttings. Buisman Elm failed to respond.

Beginning in 1959 a project of the British Forestry Commission, "Propagation of Elms and Poplars" was reported in their yearbook by J. Jobling (6–11) and has continued through the


Author: Bruce Briggs

PP: 295

Mr. Briggs present 32 plants found in table format with descriptions.

Author: Don K. Sexton

PP: 298

I have been asked to discuss some plants being introduced to the nursery trade in the southwest by Monrovia Nursery Company. Seven plants have been selected, all of them low-growing shrubs except one. Four are Junipers. Hardiness zones referred to are those used in the U.S.D.A. Plant Hardiness Map, running in degrees below zero. Zone 6 is from -10° to 0° and the other zones are in ten-degree steps so that zone 2 is from -50&deg to -40&deg.

The first of these shrubs is Cotoneaster horizontalis var. perpusilla or Ground Cotoneaster. It is a lower growing plant than the species, to about 3 feet, and has a distinct two-ranked habit of branching. This semi-evergreen shrub with pinkish flowers and red berries in fall has smaller leaves than C. horizontalis which turn red in fall also. It is useful as wall covering, on banks, and in rock gardens, growing well in any soil. Cold tolerance to zone 4.

Genista germanica var. prostrata is another bank or ground cover and the mature growth is so spiny


Author: Henry Ishida

PP: 299

In order to gather this list of ‘new’ ground cover. I followed the advice of Mr. Boddy, and contacted other people. In discussing this list with our Los Angeles County Farm Advisors Mr. Maire and Mr. Piatt, and also with Mr. Jim Perry and Mr. Carl Zangger of Perry's plants, who considered the authorities on this subject. It was interesting to find that there are actually only a very few new ground covers introduced, that is from the standpoint of a new breed or sport. Incidentally, I tried to persuade Mr. Boddy into having Mr. Zangger give this paper, but was turned down since Carl had to moderate a panel on an earlier program. It seems that what may be considered new in one locality may be due to the introduction of a relatively old, variety from another area. Or, in some cases, the reintroduction of an old variety to a, new generation of people. This probably is due to the recent interest in the use of ground covers in landscaping, and we notice the interest spread

Author: John C. Snyder

PP: 300

My main interest has been in grafting deciduous fruit trees. Because of my experience with techniques which, for the most part, are in general use, Mr. Knut Lunnum, Extension Forestry Specialist, Washington State University, prevailed upon me to help him graft some evergreens. At least, to Mr. Lunnum's knowledge, some of the grafting techniques used in horticultural crops are used to a very limited extent in evergreens. As I describe these techniques, I shall include some limited experience in grafting evergreens and suggest instances in which I think horticultural grafting techniques can be applied to evergreens.

Success in horticultural grafting depends very much upon the condition of the material and how expertly the operations are carried out. I assume the same situation applies to evergreen grafting and that possibly evergreens may be somewhat more exacting in their requirements. In horticultural grafting, failures are due mainly to failing to follow the basic principles.


Author: Carl M. Olsen

PP: 305

Aerated steam treatment of soil is basically a transfer of heat from the boiler fuel to the soil. Variables such as soil moisture, compaction, and volume, affect the penetration and volume of steam required to heat the soil.

Steam moves through the soil in an advancing front. If it is introduced beneath the surface of the soil, an egg-shaped heated area will be produced around the point of injection. The temperature in the center will be that of the incoming steam and will be progressively less with increasing distance from the input. The temperature gradient or front may be as narrow as ¼ inch. Aerated steam moves through the soil as a water vapor-saturated air mixture and condenses on the nearest cold soil particle releasing its heat to that soil particle.

When pure steam and a particular quantity of air are mixed, a temperature less than that of pure steam (212° F) will result. For instance, if 12.3 lb. of air are mixed with 1 lb. of steam, a temperature of 120°F will result; 6.5:1


Author: William M. Tomlinson

PP: 308

Hand watering has been the oldest and most widely used method of irrigation of container plants in wholesale nurseries. Due to the ready availability and reliability of stoop labor in the past, it was possible to proceed this way in our irrigation practices from the time of the Babylonians four thousand years ago until recently.

Today, however, we find labor is pricing itself too high for this type of work, and is not constantly available. If you will notice by the slide (SLIDE) the girl is hand watering. She does not look like she is paying much attention to her work, so therefore we are going to have spotty watering of the containers. When this happens, we are sure to get spotty plant growth. (SLIDE) Here we see the some girl turning off the water faucet. She has had to drag a heavy hose throughout the area and back to the hydrant. Notice that while she is turning the water off she is also washing three or four plants out of the containers, due to the fact that she is not


Author: C.J. Hansen

PP: 313

The following projects were shown:

Selection of nematode resistant fruit tree rootstocks
                                                                         —C.J. Hansen

Peach and other fruit tree rootstocks are being tested for resistance to two species of root knot nematodes, Meloidogyna incognita and M. javanica. The species of nematodes are kept in separate containers and the populations are built up by growing tomatoes for about 5 months. The seedlings or cuttings to be tested are then grown for about 5 months, after which time they are measured and the roots graded for number of galls. If galls are present, they are, also examined to see if the nematodes are reproducing on the roots.


Author: George Nyland

PP: 314

Obtaining and maintaining virus-free sources of our common varieties of fruit trees and grapes are cooperative endeavors by the University of California, United States Department of Agriculture, and the California Department of Agriculture.

Plant pathologists of the University and the United States Department of Agriculture obtain clean stocks by field selection and indexing and where necessary by heat treatment. The Foundation Plant Materials Service maintains the clean stocks in foundation plantings and makes them available to growers, and the California Department of Agriculture supervises registration and certification programs.

Standard host ranges are used to index grapes and stone fruit varieties. The 8 known viruses of grapes can be detected on 5 indicator varieties and some 20 or 25 stone fruit viruses can be detected on 8 indicator varieties. Visual inspection and selection also are important parts of the procedure.

Heat treatment can be used to free infected


Author: Curtis Alley

PP: 315

The Foundation Plant Materials Service of the University of California maintains a Foundation Orchard and Vineyard of varieties that have been indexed and found to be virus-disease-free by Plant Pathologists of the University of California and the California Department of Agriculture. Propagation wood from these sources is distributed to nurseries and growers who are participating in this program, state agencies, foreign countries, and to growers and nurseries in general.

The screenhouse area is used to maintain the various stone fruit tree varieties in isolation. In addition, there is a small Foundation-orchard that was planted this spring in which will be grown two trees of each variety to serve as a source of budwood and graftwood.

Adjacent to the screenhouse are the liner beds in which registered Mahaleb and Mazzard seedlings are grown. The small liners are grown for distribution to nurseries as lining-out-stock; the orchard size liners are raised for growers. About 2 miles west of the


Author: Stanley Mather

PP: 315

Growers may use plant materials furnished by the University's Foundation Plant Materials Service for the propagation of nursery stock in accordance with regulations for registration and certification adopted by the state Department of Agriculture. These regulations are formulated when clean propagating sources are developed and when specific procedures are needed to maintain the virus cleanliness of the nursery stock and its identity. In the Department of Agriculture, methodology studies for the certification of nursery stock are carried on by the Bureau of Plant Pathology and procedures so developed are written into regulations which are administered by Nursery Service. The registration and certification programs are optional and self-supporting through fees collected to cover the Department's cost of indexing, testing, inspection, and supervision required by the regulations.

The development and operation of these programs exemplify the cooperation that exists in California between the


Author: K.W. Reisch

PP: 88

Transpiration, or water loss from various plant parts, is a natural process which can, under certain conditions, result in damage to or death of plants. Rapidly transpiring plants often lose water to the extent that leaf cells lose turgor and wilting results. If water loss exceeds absorption beyond the extent of recovery, death from dehydration will eventually occur. Even a moderate loss of turgidity causes premature closure of stomates which interferes with photosynthesis and other metabolic processes. Water loss can become very critical when roots are damaged or removed as in bare-root transplanting, and are not sufficient to compensate for the water lost in transpiration.

The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using specific anti-desiccants in reducing water loss and increasing survival of transplanted bare-root plants.

Emerson and Hildreth (2), in 1933, found that corn oil and sulfonated linseed oil reduced transpiration of Austrian Pine seedlings. Thornton


Author: J.P. Nitsch

PP: 316

Perhaps one does not often realize that the year 2000 is only thirty-six years ahead. It's not a very long time and, probably, that year will be no different than the year before and the year after. So we, can look at the year 2000 as an ordinary year and can compare it with other ordinary years that have passed before. If we do this, we can look back in history and see what happened in the last thirty or forty years. We then observe that the discoveries which were made thirty or forty years ago are now being applied to the field of plant propagation.

Author: Dale E. Kester

PP: 324

The Department of Pomology in the California Agricultural Experiment Station has had an active program in fruit and nut breeding for many years. The various aspects of these breeding programs include:
  1. Maintenance of collections of species, varieties and breeding materials although there is no attempt to maintain a complete collection.
  2. Development and evaluation of new varieties with emphasis on commercial orcharding.
  3. Study of genetics and inheritance of the fruit and nut species.

Most of the work involves seedling growing but some work is starting in induction of mutations. With the establishment of the radioactive cobalt source on the campus, more work is contemplated. However, there is some doubt as to whether potential usefulness of this method is as great as conventional methods. Probably it will be useful in particular types of plants or in achieving specific objectives.

My own work deals mostly with almond breeding and I would like to tell you something about our efforts relative to the


Author: Carl J. Hansen

PP: 325

I will limit my remarks to some of the vegetative methods of propagation that we, are using for fruit tree rootstocks.

In the June, 1963 issue of the "Plant Propagator" Dr. H. T. Hartmann, Dr. W. H. Griggs and I published an article describing methods of rooting Old Home and Bartlett pears for use in areas where decline is a problem.

The method for Old Home consisted of taking the cuttings in late October and treating them with IBA (100 ppm for 24 hrs. or 2000 ppm quick dip). Following treatment the cuttings were stored for about 3 weeks in moist peat moss at 70°F and then planted in the nursery. About 72% of the cuttings rooted.

The Bartlett pear would not root satisfactorily by the method used for Old Home. It was necessary to take the Bartlett Cuttings in the late November and hold them upright in peat moss over bottom heat, but with the tops exposed to winter chilling conditions, for 3 week before planting. Best rooting was obtained with bottom heat of 75°F and an IBA treatment of 150 ppm


Author: E.F Serr

PP: 327

The standard and generally used rootstock for commercial walnut orchards in California during the period from 1910 to 1950 was the Northern California Black Walnut, Juglans hindsii. Since 1950 there has been increasing interest in Paradox hybrids (mainly J. hindsii × J. regia) and a few plantings have been made on J. regia in districts where Blackline (delayed incompatibility) is an overridding problem in mature orchards.

The reasons for favoring Paradox over J. hindsii in some areas are usually: (1) greater vigor and faster growth especially in mountain districts and on poorer soils and in replant situations; (2) greater tolerancel of root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus vulnus); (3) greater tolerance of high lime content in soil, excess water, or very heavy soil texture; (4) resistance to crown rot (Phytophthera cactorum). There is considerable evidence indicating better average uptake of zinc, phosphorus and iron by the Paradox than J. hindsii roots. On the other


Author: Lowell E. Sherman

PP: 330

Oki Nursery, in the fall of 1963, was approached by IBM concerning the possible installation of data processing equipment. After many hours of consultation and research into the operation of our wholesale nursery business, IBM determined that an installation would be economically realistic. The actual installation of IBM equipment was made in late December 1963 with a date of January 10, 1964 set as the target date to be operational.

IBM designs and builds each system to the needs of each customers. For this reason, installation can be painful until the "bugs" are worked out of a system. We did suffer such a period and did not become fully operational until February 10, 1964.

As part of the research prior to the installation, it was determined that one of the areas of information most lacking in the nursery industry was sales analysis. It is from sales analysis that you are able to program production from propagation to finished product. With this in mind, the accumulation of


Author: Edwin S. Kubo

PP: 332

Collection of Cuttings
  1. Use sharp shears
  2. Use clean polythylene sheets to collect cutting material.
  3. Protect the cutting wood against direct sunlight when working in the open.
  4. Take cutting wood to propagation shed as often as necessary to prevent desiccation.
Cutting Procedures
  1. Wash cutting wood on rack as soon as it is brought in from the field.
  2. Keep cutting wood moist with mist until time of use.
  3. Use sharp shears or knife to make the cuttings.
  4. Length of cuttings are 3–4 inches long.
  5. Dip finished cuttings for 10 minutes with Morton's Soil Drench C at the rate of 1 tsp. per 5 gallons of water.
  6. Cuttings are placed in a wire bottom box after treated and drained.
  7. Cuttings are treated with Hormodin powder 1, 2, 3, or the quick dip method using I.B.A. crystal with 50% alcohol.
  8. Sterlilized rooting medium is used for sticking cuttings.
  9. Types of rooting media:
    1. Perlite 100%
    2. Perlite 75%

    3. Peat Moss 25%
    4. Propagation grade sand 100%
  10. All tools are disinfected twice daily with 1 quart of 37% commercial
SOILS AND STERILIZATION: Mixing, Sterilization. Methods

Author: James Takehara

PP: 333

  1. Initially Oki Nursery was predominantly a bare root and B & B grower with a few acres of container grown stock. The requirements, at that time, for soil of container grown stock was met under the following conditions:
    1. Equipment: Stationary five yard cement mixer and scoop loader tractor.
    2. Sterilization: Methyl Bromide.
    3. Type of soil: U.C. Mix.
  2. When Oki Nursery underwent the transition to complete container growing, 50 acres of containers necessitated a greater volume of soil under the U.C. Mix specifications.
    1. The U.C. Soil specifications are the following:
      1. Soil must be uniform.
      2. Soil must be free of weeds and disease.
      3. Soil's basic ingredients must be economically and readily obtainable.
      4. Soil must be free from salinity.
      5. Soil must be usable soon after mixing.
    2. Sterilizing methods used by the Oki Nursery to fulfill the above specifications are as follows:
      1. Weed control — methyl bromide for rice hull.
      2. Composting — natural heating within the soil mass.
      3. Steam — liner mix and propagation media.
  3. Factors of the mixing

Author: Dick Oki

PP: 334

Most of us build or purchase machinery for easier and quicker handling, and for labor saving. We all make mistakes in purchasing special equipment because of the expense involved. A less expensive model will usually be made with cheaper parts.

We here at our nursery, in evaluating equipment, consider life time, labor saved, and taxes. It's a shame our industry isn't large enough for machine manufacturers to build specialized equipment. Most all of our equipment is built here in our shops. All parts we use are new and are readily available at any dealer.

First, I'd like everyone to observe the two-row Pneumatic Canning Machine. At this rate of speed, this crew will plant over 17,000 cans in an eight hour day. Except for the hoppers and pot dies, the parts for this whole machine may be obtained through any machine shop supply house. The parts that get the most wear on this machine are the chains and sprockets.

This truck was built in our shop. It has a Chevy II, four cylinder motor with an


Author: George Oki

PP: 335

Since Oki Nursery's fertility program is based on the constant feed system, a more dependable fertilizer metering system was needed. The source of water being from a well we have faced a constant problem of sand in our water raising havoc with the positive metering system as used by many injector pumps.

We at Oki Nursery under the advise and counsel of Mr. Fred Petersen of Soil and Plant Laboratories have installed the BIF metering system. This apparatus is a commonly used technical equipment used by many water districts throughout the country to chlorinate drinking water. All component units were of a stock shelf item and only fertilizer was used instead, of the chlorinating reagent.

These are the 3 basic pieces of equipment necessary.

  1. The transmitter which responds to a differential pressure created by a primary flow element of the "DALL" flow tube and converts the pressure differential into time impulses proportionate to flow accuracy is ± 0.1% of maximum flow.
  2. The Dall flow

Author: Larry J. Booher

PP: 336

The production of large numbers of plants in containers has created a problem on how to irrigate and fertilize to assure uninterrupted growth. Plants growing in gallon cans are now irrigated by overhead sprinkler systems, and proportioners are available to inject fertilizers into the irrigation line. Trees growing in 5 and 15 gallon containers are being watered by hand, which is too slow and costly.

The Oki Nursery of Sacramento decided to build a system to irrigate 15 gallon containers and asked for assistance in designing it. They wanted the system to irrigate 12,000 containers from a pump delivering 200 g.p.m. containers to be spaced on 4 foot centers.

The first step was to determine the amount of water needed and the rate of application to uniformly wet the soil mix in the container. Plastic tubing with 1/16 and 1/8 inch inside diameter was tried, but at, low pressure the rate of application was too slow. There was no spreading in the coarse soil mix, so the water traveled down from


Author: Hugh Steavenson

PP: 95

Those of you who have visited our nursery in Northeast Missouri know we are situated in quite hilly terrain overlooking the Mississippi River bottoms. Our primary production over the years has been seedlings, but in the past decade or so our production has included material as large as specimen (caliper) shade trees and container stock. We grow a long list of tree and shrub seedlings as well as a variety of evergreens and other stock; so my comments on mulch or "no-tillage" culture are not restricted to just a few items.

For years I was convinced that seedlings and transplants could be most economically and feasibly produced on the light, nearly level alluvial soils that occur where creeks empty upon the bottom ground. For over a century these creeks deposited an out-wash eroded from the nearby hills. While these "made" soils are indeed suitable for most nursery crops, it took years of observation to demonstrate any species or variety would perform as well on our hills and many items would


Author: Edwin S. Kubo

PP: 339

In the 1962 Twelfth Annual Meeting of the International Plant Propagators' Society — Eastern Region, Mr. George Oki spoke on, "Systems and Mechanization in a Container Nursery." Also he briefly mentioned Oki Nursery's record keeping system. Since then, we have had many inquiries from nurserymen from different states about our production record keeping system.

One of the questions asked by nurserymen is as follows: What form does Oki Nursery use to anticipate varieties to grow? We at Oki Nursery use the Annual Production Schedule. In this form we have information such as:

  1. Variety
  2. Method of Propagation
  3. Approximate per cent of rooting or germination
  4. Approximate amount to cut or seed
  5. Best month to cut or plant seeds
  6. Alternate month to cut or plant seeds

Another common question asked is how do we determine when to make the cuttings, plant the liners, and plant the gallons? We use our Crop Projection Sheet in which for each variety the sales date and quantity needed is first determined; then we work back


Author: John S. Parr

PP: 343

In today's expanding and competitive market place, one of the most significant goals towards which nurserymen are working is optimum production with lowest costs and best inventory levels to meet customer demand. For over a year we have worked closely with Oki Nursery to implement an IBM Data. Processing system which is a step toward this important objective.

As Mr. Kubo has told you, he maintains production records on all crops grown at Oki Nursery and during the last year we have been gathering sales data as a result of doing the basic accounting jobs of order writing and invoicing. This first venture into data processing is an important one, for while it is economically performing the routine accounting functions of order writing, invoicing, accounts receivable, accounts payable, it also enables a nursery to gather sales data which can later be used with production records to forecast sales and project production requirements.

The modularity of IBM data processing systems is


Author: Andrew J. Klapis Jr

PP: 101

Originally this material on pot grafting of Junipers was to be centered around the Bard-Parker surgical knife and its use as a grafting knife. Since my original training in the business world was in the pharmaceutical industry as a medical detailer, I couldn't see why a modified Bard-Parker knife wouldn't be an ideal grafting knife. I had a dentist friend who obtained the first two handles for me and a varied supply of blades. These two original knives proved to be too fragile for some of the heavier scions and understock and about four years ago I found the heavier handle which you see displayed on the tables. The knife handles and blades can be purchased at any good surgical supply house. The #6 Bard-Parker handle is the heavy grade, and blades numbering #20 through #24 are the series which fit the #6 handle. The price is about $3.00 each for the handle and $1.50 per dozen for the blades. We have found these satisfactory even for Blue Spruce and other heavy understock. In our experience