Volume 17

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Author: John Traas

PP: 50

My earliest recollections of fruit growing date back fifty years. That was when Antwerp was bombed in 1918 and I was sheltered under one of the big fruit trees in my father's orchard. They were old and, of course, on seedling rootstocks. Ten years later, another remarkable feat happened when my father bought his first pears on quince. They were the most miserable looking trees I have ever seen but that was the beginning of a period when nurserymen began to grow trees on controlled understock. Some people called them dwarf, but that does not mean that they had to be below quality, as happened when my father bought his first shipment.

Many things have changed since then—the time when people planted trees thirty to forty per acre has long passed, and nowadays three to four hundred per acre is not uncommon! This is the time of wide variation of types, with many specific characteristics on different soils, under different climates and in different countries. It is with this in mind that we will attempt to


Author: Philip G. Haddock

PP: 91

In order to be more certain of not being misunderstood, it is necessary to risk boring you by defining "provenance", at least as I intend to use the word. In forestry, it refers to the geographic origin of seed, or according to Callaham (1964) "the population of trees growing at a particular place of origin, and Wright (1962) "the original geographic source of a lot of seed (or pollen)." The term provenance should be restricted to the more or less precise origin of the naturally developed ("in situ") population from which the seed is directly derived. We need to recall that the phenotype, in contrast to the genotype, is what we have to deal with as our product. It is always the result of the reaction between the genotype and the environment. Failure to understand and appreciate this fact has been the cause of great misunderstanding, many errors in practice and much financial loss. It is probably unnecessary to stress these elementary matters to a group such as this, but perhaps the special

Author: G.S. Allen

PP: 99

Stratification of seed that is otherwise difficult to germinate is a very old practice, probably pre-dating most of our agriculture and forestry texts and handbooks. It is an art developed from observation, experiment, and experience. To date it is not strongly science-based although its effects will undoubtedly be explained in due course in terms of removal of specific blocks to germination—the ultimate goal of the seed.

Stratification is one of a number of treatments commonly used to overcome seed dormancy. Such include the use of light or other radiation, the use of various chemicals such as thiourea, nitrates, ethylene gas, citric acid, and gibberellin, soaking in hot water and acids and many others. Some of these appear to be interchangeable. In particular, stratification can substitute for the others in many instances.

The suggestion has been made and generally accepted that the course of germination may follow one of several pathways, that blocks may be present in one or


Author: Jack Doty

PP: 106

In growing seedlings we try to duplicate the processes which would come about naturally. Seeds have an inherent ability to hold back germination in the fall to avoid winter-killing. By stratification we gain a quick germination at planting time. However, with some varieties we find that it is more advantageous to plant in the fall and germinate the seeds naturally.

Source of seed is a never-ending problem. Local seed crops are always the best, as they will have a higher moisture content and require less processing for germination. Imported seeds have to be fumigated; if moisture and temperature are high the methyl bromide will stop germination. In general, we have found that it pays to keep the seeds in transit the least possible time. Air shipment may seem rather costly, but it usually pays back dividends with better germination.

Seeds in the berry form will germinate better if the outer pulp is left in close contact with the seed during stratification. Probably the acid of the pulp


Author: Eugene Baciu

PP: 110

Hydro-seeding, in essence, is the application of seed by high pressure water spraying. This is quite a simple and efficient method of getting a job done in a hurry.

Most of the work up to date has been done with sowing grass seed. This is done with hydro-seeding machines which have been built on several different carriers. Some small ones are built on two-axle truck chassis while others are built on trailers and semi-trailers. The tanks in which the slurry is mixed are of different sizes, as are the high pressure pumps. The tanks will hold enough mix to cover a given number of acres with so many seeds per acre.

The slurry is made of seed, water, fertilizer and mulch. The mulch may be made of different materials, such as grounded straw or hay, held together with oil or thin asphalt. However, the fact that straw is flammable makes it a distinct hazard. Some companies make a wood fiber mulch that holds together very well and its moisture retaining power is quite satisfactory. A


Author: John Eichelser

PP: 112

The many rhododendron growers that are here today probably wonder why I have come to talk on grafting rhododendrons at a time when grafting has been almost completely abandoned in favor of rooting cuttings. Although the latter method is much faster and easier and takes less space then grafting on unrooted understock, I do not advocate such grafting as a primary means of propagating rhododendrons. Rather, it may be useful as a method of rooting those few varieties which we are always trying to root, but never with much success; or for propagating the few cuttings of a new and very choice variety received late in the year, with very hard wood, when the percentage of rooting might be low.

We use ‘Cunningham White’ for the understock because it roots very easily and, unlike R. ponticum, it has a high resistance to root rot, it does not sucker from the base, and it has been compatible with all varieties that we have tried grafted on it.

I would like to illustrate the actual process


Author: Gottlob (Rudy) Wagner

PP: 113

As every propagator of conifers knows, there are many species and varieties of Juniperus which are slow and hard to root, and even if we succeed we likely have a plant with a poor root system. Juniperus virginiana is well known for this; even with all the root-inducing materials it is often impossible to get the needed fibrous root system.

The usual procedure in propagating such slow-rooting varieties is to graft them, onto potted stock in late winter, but for this purpose the stock must first be grown from seeds or cuttings and at best this causes a delay of a year or two. Besides, the potted stock or the pre-rooting of the cuttings takes considerable greenhouse space, which increases the expense of the whole operation.

Much quicker results at much less expense can be obtained by taking cuttings of certain easy-to-root varieties, which have the tendency to develop a good root system, and grafting scions onto them immediately before they are placed in the rooting medium.



Author: Donald Dillon

PP: 114

In order to simultaneously root and graft citrus successfully it is necessary to have the right climatic environment. All of our propagation is from mother-plant twigs; these mother plants are grown in the open air, without shelter from the elements. Having the right type of wood is essential. However, the simultaneous graft healing and understock rooting is done under controlled hot-house conditions.

An ample supply of the right hardened-off shoots of new growth are a "must" in successful twig grafting. Both scionwood and rootstock wood must be available simultaneously at the proper time. We grow our own original mother plants, both for rootstocks and for scions.

Our selections and methods are based on "research," if you will pardon our usage of this word with this definition — "If one appropriate another man's idea, that is stealing; but if you combine the ideas of many experts along with your own, that is research." We should confess plagiarism in "twig-grafting." Dr. F. F. Halma and fellow


Author: Holger Brix

PP: 118

A study of rooting of Douglas fir cuttings was undertaken two years ago because vegetative propagation of Douglas fir by grafting had not been entirely satisfactory. In recent years much overgrowth of rootstock by the scion has become apparent resulting in poor growth and eventual death of the tree. A barrier to translocation of assimilate from the plant top to the root seems to develop at the graft union and leads to starvation of the rootstock.

Chemical treatments have not been consistently successful in rooting Douglas fir cuttings from mature trees. Other workers have found, as we have, that indolebutyric acid (IBA) will induce rooting in cuttings from old trees but the results can not consistently be replicated in other years and with other trees. Mechanical aids, such as wounding, have not improved the results. On the other hand, cuttings from seedlings of Douglas fir root fairly readily even without chemical treatments. It, therefore, seemed worth testing whether cuttings


Author: Joe Wheat

PP: 122

With the exception of easily-rooted species, such as the poplars and cryptomeria, vegetative propagation of forest tree species is practical only where clonal material is advantageous in tree improvement and similar research programs. Only in recent years have vegetative propagation techniques—long familiar to horticulturalists—been applied to many of the coniferous forest trees. So far, grafting has been the most common method of propagation, since many conifers are very difficult to increase by cuttings.

In the Pacific Northwest, Douglas fir is receiving the most attention from research and tree improvement workers. This species has proven to be very easy to graft. However, with the older grafted seed orchards (some now 10 years old), losses due to incompatibility between stock and scion have been of serious magnitude. Recent studies by Dr. Copes gives us hope that grafting may become practical in the future.

However, another way to beat a problem is to avoid it. A clone can also


Author: O. Sziklai

PP: 124

Apomixis is a general term used for all types of asexual reproduction that replace or substitute for sexual methods. Agamospermy includes all types of apomictic reproduction in which embryos and seeds are formed by asexual means. In the case of vegetative reproduction, the propagules are not produced from seed but as a result of cell multiplication by mitotic division. Most plants have the capacity to reproduce vegetatively from roots, stems, branches and leaves; and even in a few cases, the propagules occur within the inflorescence as is the case in vivipary.

Layering, rooting and grafting, as different means of vegetative propagation, have been widely used in horticulture from ancient times. Rooting is the most widely used method of asexual reproduction in forestry practice. Rooting by stem cuttings, mainly in the genera Populus, Salix and Platanus is a well developed practice in intensive forest management. Layering is of a more limited application and is used mainly in experimental


Author: Herbert H. Frost

PP: 55

Our nursery is located 40 miles northeast of Seattle, Washington, in the western foothills of the Cascade Mountains, where the soil and climate conditions are excellent for growing hardy trees. The soil is upland sandy loam with a pH of 5.5 to 6 and is rich in organic matter. The ground is prepared two years in advance of planting, with two green cover crops deeply plowed under. We add 400 lbs. of 10–20–20 commercial fertilizer per acre.

At this time we are growing apples on ‘E.M. IX’ and ‘E.M. VII’ understocks. The reason we have confined our growing to these two is that we sell primarily to retail stores; ‘E.M. IX’, a dwarf of 8 to 10 feet, and ‘E.M. VII’, a semi-dwarf—12 to 15 feet—are the most acceptable. We discontinued ‘E.M. IV’ because of its brittle roots. Our finished trees are never sold as whips, but are headed back at approximately 40 inches and are grown on as well-branched 2 and 3-year-olds.

We propagate our stocks as both mound and continuous layers. Our original stock came from Canada. We


Author: Donald Copes

PP: 130

Grafting of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) started commercially on the West Coast in the late 1950's with large-scale grafting in clonal seed orchards. Scions collected from superior tree selections were grafted upon wildlings or nursery-run seedling rootstocks. No attempt was made to identify parentage of the stocks or to graft scions upon clonal stocks. Graft mortality from incompatibility became evident as early as the following spring. Each year since that time, mortality has continued with delayed symptoms of incompatibility. Continuing incompatibility losses in the first grafted clones and in later grafts have caused seed orchardists to become increasingly aware of the severity of the problem.

To point up the incompatibility problem, let me repeat graft survival data from three seed orchardists of Oregon and Washington. Mortality from purely technique failures—that occurring during the first 2 or 3 months after grafting—was excluded from data. In one


Author: Ralph A. Jack

PP: 138

Our nursery and tree farm has as objectives: (1) raising seedlings and transplants for our use in growing Christmas trees, which we wholesale and (2) producing container stock for wholesale to nurseries, as well as for our own mail-order retail business.

We are located at Silverton Hills near Silverton, Oregon, in the Cascade foothills at an elevation of 1500 feet. We are 15 airline miles east of Salem, Oregon. Our soil is Olympic clay loam and is of a medium texture. Locally it is called "shot" soil.

We gather some conifer seeds for our own use, such as noble fir, western and mountain hemlock, Abies magnifica and Abies concolor. Noble fir is collected in the Cascades at 3500–4000 feet elevation. Abies concolor and Abies magnifica are collected in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California at about 7000 and 8000 feet elevation, respectively. We buy most of our seeds.

Seed is stratified in one of two ways; (1) with damp peat in plastic bags—50% seeds and 50% peat with moisture


Author: John Walters

PP: 141

Forest tree planting began about 400 years ago. Since that time the methods of tree planting have changed only slightly while the principles have changed not at all. Although ½ billion seedlings are planted each year in North America we rely still on the same techniques which were developed for much smaller quantities of planting stock at a time when labour costs were insignificant. Forestry in the Pacific Northwest currently relies on manual methods to plant two-year-old bare root Douglas fir seedlings. About 500 trees per man-day are planted with this technique, currently in wide use in the Pacific Northwest.

Today, we are faced with the problem of accomplishing a monotonous, tedious job with a labour force which is rapidly diminishing in terms of quantity and quality. In some regions an attempt has been made to mechanize this operation by borrowing techniques from agricultural practice and by modifying agricultural equipment such as the broccoli planter. These tractor-drawn


Author: Denis P. Lavender, Joe B. Zaerr

PP: 146

Douglas fir, in common with most conifers, is characterized by extremely slow seedling growth and by very heterogenous populations. Obviously it does not recommend itself as an experimental organism to physiologists studying basic processes in plant growth. It is not surprising, then, that there are little data describing chemical growth regulation of this species nor that the great majority of the existing information is derived from highly empirical trials. Unfortunately, while such studies may define areas where more sophisticated techniques may be employed to elucidate physiological phenomena, they do not, in themselves, provide data describing the role of plant growth regulators in Douglas fir physiology.

The first part of this paper will be concerned with the aforementioned trials; the second, with problems we have encountered in our attempts to measure endogenous growth regulators; and the last, with current studies designed to define the role such endogenous regulators play in


Author: Fenton E. Larsen

PP: 157

The use of chemicals to defoliate nursery stock dates back to at least 1940, when Milbrath, et al., (7), advocated the use of ethylene gas for defoliating roses in storage, a method that apparently works well but which has disadvantages.

The need for early defoliation in the nursery to allow earlier digging of stock has undoubtedly existed for years in many areas. Hand-stripping is a common, but very expensive method of leaf removal. Other non-chemical methods (sweating in pits, use of animals, etc.) have been used but all have serious limitations.

Chemically-induced defoliation prior to digging and storage is potentially the most promising method of leaf removal, but an entirely satisfactory chemical treatment for a wide variety of plants has not been found. A number of chemicals have been tried (3,4,6,8,9,10,11) by various workers, but only a few have been useful and none has received commercial acceptance. A naturally occurring growth regulator, such as Abscisin II (1), seems


Author: Jean Whalley

PP: 173

We have always used electric bottom heat; many years ago we used lead cables — then the so-called "Roberson" cables — next General Electric, and we have now, for the past several years, used the type of electric cables which builders put in floors or walls of houses (which are about half the price of our former cables). By the way, I learned about using the building cables at one of our Propagators' meetings. We keep our bottom heat set at about 72° or 73° F and have automatic thermostats to control the temperature. We have laid ½" mesh hardware cloth over the cables as a protection and to keep them from getting out of place, although they are pegged down with wire loops at the ends of the beds. The cables are about 2" to 2½" apart in the beds.

Our first operation is to lay down the bands, which are made of 2¾" plastic. The beds where we root our rhododendrons are all ground beds, so we lay down the bands in straight rows, anywhere from 17 to 28 bands across- depending on the width of the


Author: Ranville Hart

PP: 175

I propagate my rhododendrons in a 100 by 25 ft. glasshouse which is equipped with hot water heat. The pipes are located in the air beneath the benches. The temperature is kept at 75°F in the pot zone by thermostatic control. There is no top heat. One 42" two-speed fan provides forced air ventilation.

The benches are made of concrete slabs with a six inch sides. They are skirted with polyethylene. Monarch spray nozzles with a 5-ft. coverage set four feet apart adequately provide controlled mist. They are controlled by a clock with a 10 second every 5 minute cycle but are shut off nights and rainy days. Every few days I "spot water" to cover the dry areas.

I use square peat pots set on ½" of sand — 3" for standard varieties and 2¼" for dwarfs — firmly filled with a medium of 50% coarse sand and 50% peat by volume. These pots are well-watered after they are set and the heat is turned on before I begin taking cuttings.

I make my cuttings during the first part of November. I have tried


Author: Ted Van Veen

PP: 176

Today the nurseryman is greatly aware of the economic importance of increasing his production and reducing his costs in order to maintain a reasonable profit margin. As a commercial grower, our nursery is ever mindful of this premise as a necessity for survival. Proper selection of cuttings can be a decisive profit maker. I come with no profound message, no new scientific discoveries, or great panacea to all rhododendron problems. The selection of cuttings still is more of an art than a science. But scientific research has been, and will continue to be, a tremendous guide for all of us. Through this discussion, I hope to share with you the methods we use in our nursery for taking cuttings. Whether you agree or disagree with these procedures is not important. Of more significance, it is an opportunity for you to add to your storehouse of information, correlate these experiences with your own, and possibly enable you to reach some new conclusions which will help the profit picture

Author: Robert Comerford

PP: 178

I joined this organization to learn but after six years as a member here I am up front, and 10 minutes is a long time with nothing new to say. I shall have to take a review approach. But, the more I worked on this topic the more I felt it was needed.

I now have a specialized mail-order business selling rhododendrons and azaleas directly to the home owner at retail. Rhododendrons root well in the fall and winter and Exbury azaleas root well in spring and summer, so I can keep my benches full the year around. I have no sure-fire rooting method that has worked well three years in a row.

I have tried almost every new idea in deciduous azalea propagation through the years. I try to grow about 80 different deciduous azaleas, of which some 60 are named Exbury azaleas. A few are rather easy to propagate but, as usual, most of the best yellows, reds, and some pinks are "bearcats" to propagate.

Using a glass-house, I have tried everything from a plastic tent, plastic tent plus mist, mist only,


Author: C.R. Johnson, A.N. Roberts

PP: 180

Both internal and external factors are important in adventitious root formation. We are interested in the endogenous physiological factors, particularly the influence of flower initiation on rooting. Although flowers are viewed morphologically as shoots with metamorphosized leaves, their structure and function are quite different from leaves (11). The stimulus responsible for flower induction is unknown. Flowering, as well as rooting, is probably brought about by a constellation of chemical reactions.

It is generally considered that shoots with terminal leaf buds root better than those with flower buds (4). Kemp (5) suggested that flower buds inhibited rooting in the Rhododendron shoot. De Boer increased the rooting of flowering rhododendron shoots by removing flower buds (2), as did O'Rourke with Vaccinium (7). Turezkaya, as reviewed by Selim (9), found that rooting in cuttings of Perilla and Soja decreased with flower initiation, and disappeared completely during anthesis. She


Author: Maurice Welsh

PP: 56

The problems that viruses provide for nurserymen are typical of the complexities that have been gradually overtaking propagators of fruit trees since the early carefree days when Johnny Appleseed was scattering his seeds along trails in the American wilderness. The complications began, of course, as growers recognized the superiority of certain seedlings and the need to grow them as varieties grafted on rootstocks. Even this was relatively simple for a time, when there seemed a need only for germination of randomly-collected seeds, and their topworking to the desired varieties. Now by contrast, the fruit breeder and the nurseryman must concern themselves with vegetatively-propagated as well as seedling rootstocks, which endow the trees with varying degrees of dwarfing, and provide other useful characteristics. Often a 3- or 4-part tree is required to attain satisfactory tree shape, disease resistance and hardiness. To this must be added all the other precautions necessary to cope with

Author: J. Harold Clarke

PP: 183

The naming of plants is not strictly a part of propagation but is closely allied with it. All plants we work with have names, or numbers, or identification tags of some kind.

Some of our members are plant breeders and perhaps they have the greatest responsibility in this matter of naming — responsibility to themselves and their own good name, and to the public at large.

Many of our members are engaged in research. Every good plantsman knows that different kinds of plants, and different clones of the same kind of plant, differ greatly in their cultural requirements, their response to pest control methods, and their response to different methods of propagation.

Our retail nurserymen members know that different varieties have widely different values and so he, as well as other horticulturists, has a vested interest in clear, concise, easily remembered non-duplicated names. We all want to know what we are working with.

Botanical names. The botanists, since the time of Linnaeus, have had a


Author: O.A. Batcheller

PP: 188

I feel highly flattered that the program committee felt I was able to come up with a magic formula for "Facilities Necessary for Teaching Propagation" at the high school and junior college level.

It is pleasing to many of us to see this new interest in the horticultural field at this level. Not only is horticulture an ancient and honorable profession, but home gardening is the number one hobby in the United States. Nearly all individuals at one time or another will be concerned with the gardens around their homes.

Propagation is the heart of any horticultural program, but as the various phases of propagation involve nearly all of a horticultural unit, I am broadening my presentation to include the overall layout of an Ornamental Horticultural Unit. This will include the following: an enclosed area for the unit and for growing plants, the greenhouse and headhouse combination, the classroom and a shade or lathhouse area. I will limit my presentation to the facilities that should be


Author: F.L. Steve O'Rourke

PP: 219

Plant propagation from seed is an ancient art. It had its beginnings when primitive man first established permanent sites and relinquished a nomadic existence. Throughout the ages seed propagation has developed with mankind and in the modern world is basic to man's need for food and clothing.

In our time plant propagators are interested in seed propagation for several primary reasons:

  1. Many homozygous seed strains (pure lines) of various species of both woody and herbaceous plants come "true from seed", that is, the seedlings are relatively uniform and resemble their parents in practically all characters.
  2. Plants from heterozygous parents are quite variable, non-uniform, and seldom resemble their parents. However, certain individual plants may show superior or desired characteristics. Thus selections may be made and the chosen plant may there-after be propagated vegetatively as a clone.
  3. Combinations between two pure lines may produce seedlings of exceptional quality. An example is "hybrid corn".

Author: Alfred J. Fordham

PP: 223

Germination of many seeds is hindered only by seed coats that retard the admission of water. If these impervious coats are not modified by pretreatment, germination can be erratic and sometimes extended over many years. Three hundred seeds of Gymnocladus dioicus, the Kentucky coffee tree, were placed in a tray of water in April 1963 and since that time have been kept at room temperature. Each week the seeds were examined, those which had germinated were removed, and the results recorded. In the first 10 days, 13 seeds imbibed water and the produced radicles. These, no doubt, had fissures in their seed coats at the outset. Twenty-one months later, in January 1965, three more imbibed water and germinated. The following table shows how many more have done so since that time:

Author: Richard C. Bedger

PP: 230

Mr. Steavenson, Society Members, and guests. It is a pleasure to discuss with you this morning the propagation of plants from seeds. I feel that the key to this whole phase of propagation is one word "seed". We can have the most beautifully prepared beds, the most fertile soil, and sufficient water, but if the germination capacity of the seed is low or if it is sterile, the beds will be poor or fail.

In our operations at Musser Forests, we store large amounts of seed in sealed jugs in refrigerated storage. In any year that nature produces a good crop, we purchase a two or three year supply of seed. Not only is the seed cheaper but the viability in a good crop year is normally greater.

As each shipment of seed is received from the supplier, it is put in the jugs for storage. A sample of approximately 1,000 seeds is kept out for testing. We test most conifers we grow except for hemlock and white pine. These species require special pre-chilling. Mr Claude Heit at the New York Agricultural


Author: J. Peter Vermeulen

PP: 236


I must emphasize the word "some" in my subject title because our recent seeding experience has been limited itemwise in broadleaved evergreens to Enkianthus campanulata palibini, Kalmia latifolia, Leucothoe catesbaei, Oxydendron arborem. Pieris floribunda, Pieris Japonica, and Rhododendron species and hybrids and such deciduous Azaleas as calendulacea, Exbury, Knapbill, Slocock Hybrids, Mollis Hybrids, Mucronulatum, flavum, poukhanense, schlippenbachi, Ghent Hybrids and Kaempferi. Since the methods used have been constantly successful for the past several years this paper will therefore generally center on methods rather than the science of growing broadleaf evergreens from seed. I hope that it will be of some benefit to you today as well as to subsequent readers. Interestingly it will treat practically the same broadleaf evergreen items as did the paper of Zophar Warner presented to this Society at Cleveland in 1954. (1)


Author: Loy W. Shreve, Ronald W. Campbell

PP: 242

Pecan seedlings may require several growing seasons to reach a size suitable to graft or bud. Reducing that time would reduce production costs. Also, pecan growers who propagate their own trees could have producing trees sooner.

Gibberellic acid applications increased the height of one-year seedling yellow poplar, sweet gum, cherrybark oak, willow oak, and southern red oak (Nelson, 1957). GA3 increased stem elongation of newly germinated pecan seedlings grown under greenhouse conditions (Martin and Wiggins, 1961). GA3 treated black walnut, willow oak, and loblolly pine seedlings were 40% taller and twice as thick as untreated seedlings (U.S.D.A., 1958).

This study attempted to determine: 1. if field applications of GA3 increased pecan seedling growth for budding and grafting earlier than untreated pecan seedlings; 2. if time of application affected response; and 3. response of pecan seedlings to repeated GA3 treatments.


Author: Andrew T. Klapis Jr

PP: 249

In a brief tour around my postage stamp backyard last week, I counted seven different varieties of viburnum. All these plants have been there for at least five years through temperatures ranging from 15° below zero to 110° above; and all are thriving and healthy. Because of their hardiness and versatility, viburnums are held in high esteem in our rigorous plains country. When I go East or South, my mouth waters and I'm envious of the beautiful broadleaf material which the nurseryman can grow and market with impunity. However, all of us can grow many of the viburnums, and experiences which we have had in propagating these plants both at Raytown Nursery and at the School Gardens of the Kansas City Missouri School District is the tale I wish to tell.

From the accompanying table you can see that initially the number and variety of the cuttings stuck was very limited. In 1958 plant propagation was a brand new field to me, and Ben Asjes gave me a list of material he wanted propagated, and off


Author: John Vermeulen

PP: 254

It is fairly simple to grow Franklinia alatamaha from softwood. We take the cuttings in our area about the middle of July just before the new growth starts to get woody. We prefer the cuttings from older plants as these are more firm in texture. We therefore have a row of stock plants about 20 years old. They get a severe trimming every 3 years which makes for nice sturdy cuttings. We make our cuttings about 5 to 6 inches in length and take off all but 5 or 6 leaves which are cut in half.

The cuttings are stuck directly in 3" peatpots in a rooting media consisting of 53 parts peatmoss, 17½ parts #1 Perlite, 17½ parts styrofoam, 9 parts fine sand, 3 parts soil, firmly packed. We put 28 pots in a regular greenhouse flat. The flat is placed outdoors in a mist frame which is covered with cloth giving about 20% shade. This cloth is placed at an angle about 4' above the frame.

Intermittent mist is applied from about one hour after sunrise until about sunset. I cannot give you an exact


Author: Larry Carville

PP: 255

Without question, the most notable addition to the deciduous azaleas for colder climates during the last decade has been the introduction of the Knaphill Azaleas from England. This group of azaleas fills the needs of both the connoisseur and the grower in that these plants are vigorous in growth habit, offer exceptional color during the blooming season, and are dependably hardy in the northeast.

I propose to limit this paper in content since the material I am presenting results from experience and observations gained in growing Knaphill azaleas in the greater Hartford, Conn. area over an eight-year period. I do not propose to disagree with or dispute authorities in the horticultural field who have had vastly more extensive experience than I but rather submit to you for your consideration my personal experiences.

For the purpose of simplification I will refer to this group of deciduous azaleas as the Knaphill azaleas, but please realize that I include the Exbury azaleas as well.


Author: M.S. Fadl, H.T. Hartmann

PP: 62

In studies of methods of propagating rootstocks known to be resistant to "pear decline", it was noted that hardwood cuttings of ‘Old Home’ pear rooted readily whereas such cuttings of ‘Bartlett’ were very difficult to root (3). It was determined in these tests that nursery trees of own-rooted ‘Old Home&rsqou; could be propagated easily by taking hardwood cuttings in the fall, treating them with indolebutyric acid (IBA), then storing them for about 3 weeks in damp peat moss at 70°F. for roots to become just visible before planting in the nursery. ‘Bartlett’ pear cuttings, however, if handled in this manner formed no roots. But if lsquo;Bartlett’ cuttings, after receiving the IBA treatment, were placed out-of-doors (in late fall or early winter) upright in damp peat moss over bottom heat (80°F.) but with the top buds exposed to the natural winter chilling (40 to 50°F), roots would form in about 3 weeks. Cuttings with such incipient rooting, if transferred to the nursery row, would then develop into vigorous

Author: John DeVisser

PP: 259

It is a great pleasure for me to be here this afternoon and to talk to you on the subject of viburnums. My father has been propagating now for well over 35 years. We propagate most plants including the shade and ornamental trees, evergreens, ground covers, broadleaf evergreens and a great amount of perennials. I cannot say that propagating viburnums is as easy as throwing them on the ground but I feel they are easy to root as it is to germinate tomato seeds. Viburnum burkwoodi and Viburnum carlesi are very easy to root. We try to take our cuttings normally about the end of June when the cuttings are long enough. This is normally when the second set of foliage is formed. The cuttings are normally four to five inches long. The cuttings are brought into the greenhouse, they are cleaned and dipped into hormone. Up to the last few years we had not used any hormone at all and have had excellent results. The process is quicker with the hormone. We have been using Hormodin #3 mixed with

Author: R.J. Stadtherr

PP: 260

Magnolia grandiflora, the Southern Magnolia, has been propagated usually from seeds; however, since cultivars are becoming more numerous, a vegetative method of propagation is needed. Graftage can be used; however, this increases production costs considerably. Thus, propagation by cuttings was investigated.

Enright (2) reported excellent rooting, using cuttings taken in late spring or early summer. Best results were obtained using a 10-second dip in a 20,000 ppm IBA solution with cuttings wounded basally on two sides. Cuttings taken in June and kept under intermittent mist averaged 84 to 88% rooted after 63 days in the bench.

March (3) reported that the cultivar, Freeman, was propagated by using semi-hardwood cuttings taken from juvenile plants. Hormodin #3 was used and cuttings were rooted in 8 weeks under mist.

Use of juvenile trees for cuttings was also reported by Curtis (1) who used hardwood cuttings taken in November. These cuttings from young, 4 to 6 foot trees, rooted


Author: Henry Walter

PP: 263

The Oklahoma City Park Department yearly grows about 3000 Chinese hibiscus plants which are used as annuals in its parks. Being not only concerned with the propagation and production, the behavior of the plant in the parks is also of primary importance. After testing well over 150 varieties of Chinese hibiscus, a few have been selected which are produced in the above mentioned quantities. Ease of propagation, vigorous growth, abundance of flowers, as well as all-summer performance, are the key factors used in variety selection. Over 100 varieties are still grown in the display gardens and the testing continues as new selections become available. Most of the so-called "show varieties" are produced on a two year basis; that is approximately nineteen months from a cutting to a planting sized hibiscus. We will limit our remarks to the varieties that are produced in one growing season.

Washed sharp sand is used as a rooting media. This is placed in a well drained propagating bench with


Author: Richard Vanderbilt

PP: 266

Stock plants are the basis of the crop. I feel that more predictable results may be obtained, if a separate block of rhododendrons distinct from the saleable crop is maintained for use as mother plants. Stock plants need a certain amount of studied neglect if the cuttings from them are to root strongly and quickly.

All of our rhododendron stock plants are grown in bushel baskets. We feed every other time we water until the first of July. We discontinue feeding stock plants from this time on.

In the middle of July stock plants will be budding up heavily. We remove the flower buds to produce another growth. Our cuttings will be either single second growths or multiple first and second growths if the cutting originated from a branch that was not cut the previous year. Cuttings are made in September, treated with a combination of IBA, Phygon and Boric Acid in tale. After twelve weeks they are lifted and potted into 1-quart Polytainers. This potting is a variance for us. Formerly, we


Author: Albert B. Ferguson

PP: 270

Some forty years ago, some members of the Northern Nut Grower's Association began to test bench grafting walnuts. When I came to Center Point, in 1935, to work for Davis Snyder, proprietor of the Linn County Nurseries, which was commonly known as Snyder Bros. Inc., Mr. Snyder was bench grafting walnuts. He was using a very similar method to the one we now use.

One year seedlings are dug in the fall and graded, taking out the small or the light grade, including trees that have a radical contortion just above the root. Also, the real large grade was generally graded off as being too large to match the better scionwood.

The root stock is stored with the roots buried in packing material, peat, sawdust or sphagnum moss or a mixture of them.

Scionwood is generally collected on warm days in February or early March. Scions of about three eighths of an inch are preferred, but five sixteenths to one half of an inch are okay.

The root stock is taken out generally in March, the tops cut off about


Author: Ben Davis II

PP: 272

There is actually nothing unusual about our method of grafting pecan trees at Ozark Nurseries. Our application of this method to our pecan propagation schedule is, however, different from the practices of most pecan growers. Budding is our primary method of pecan propagation with grafting being used as a follow up. Pecan seedlings are budded during their second summer of growth, during the month of August. The following spring all seedlings in the same block are grafted; (1) which were too small at the time of budding or; (2) on which the bud failed to take. The grafts and buds then start growth at approximately the same time. This gives us a larger percentage of trees from a given block of seedlings than we might otherwise get. This is especially desirable since all of our trees are machine dug and it would be impossible to leave the seedlings for budding the following season.

The grafting is done in the spring just as soon as the sap starts to rise in the stock. This is determined


Author: James Law

PP: 275

The title of this paper may be a bit misleading. It sounds like I am going to give you a spray program to fit your propagation system. Far from it and in fact about all I want to discuss with you today is how we are approaching the problem at Stark Bro's and how some of our techniques may be of benefit to you. Like a lot of us sometimes we talk a better ball game than we actually play, so bear with us.

Let's try and get a spray program into proper perspective in our total growing philosophy. Basically, on outdoor production (and I'm purposefully avoiding discussion of microclimates such as greenhouses, mist beds and specialized propagation structures) we are working with three noncontrollable growth factors — heat, light and air. With the controllable factors we have water and nutrition.

In these two areas of water and nutrition we can manage several things to modify our control of these factors; namely, weed control, irrigation, fertilization and pest control or insect and disease


Author: Philip McKay Fisher

PP: 278

My subject is rooting blueberry cuttings which is, of course, the cultivated high bush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum. There are not many other propagators here, if any, who want to know how to root blueberry softwood cuttings under mist, but possibly some of our experiences will have some application in other fields, with other material. The field is very specialized because if you do not have a blueberry plantation in a blueberry growing area, you do not have the material or market for blueberry plants.

Traditionally in most states blueberries are rooted from hardwood cuttings. The whips from the previous year's wood are 12 inches to 30 inches long, about the diameter of a pen or pencil, cut in 6-inch lengths and taken in March while the plants are dormant. The cuttings taken from the tip of the whip root better than those from the more mature wood at the base, and cuttings with leaf buds root better than those with flower buds. I first heard about rooting blueberry softwood


Author: Margaret H. Smithberg, Albert G. Johnson

PP: 281

Nurserymen have long recognized the importance of using plants well adapted to their local climatic conditions in order to produce attractive and fully hardy specimens. Presently, there is an increasing interest in the use of native plant materials. For this reason knowledge of factors relating to the geographic origin of plants used for propagating purposes is of growing concern.

In 1963 we obtained dormant cuttings of red-osier dogwood from points both in the United States and Canada. Figure one indicates the collection points of dogwood and the source of specimens in the University of Minnesota Herbarium. The resulting plants were grown in the greenhouse and then transplanted in a randomized block design into the experimental plots.

Variations both in plant form and growth rate were noted during the first growing season. The extremes in variation in form are evident when comparing a typical plant from the Minneapolis area (Figure two) with those of the same age from Alaska


Author: Ronald M. Girouard

PP: 289

The art of propagating plants from cuttings is old and may have started with man's initial interest in ornamental, medicinal, orchard and field plants. But as a science, a series of facts systematically arranged to explain or predict the operation of general laws, the propagation of plants from cuttings did not begin to develop until the eighteenth century (24). Probably the first paper describing the scientific approach to plant propagation was written by the French dendrologist Duhamel du Monceau in 1758 (see fig. 1 and ref. 10). My paper this morning will be an attempt to summarize what is known concerning the anatomy of adventitious root formation in stem cuttings. And when compared with the volumes written by Duhamel, my talk will simply resemble a drop in the bucket.

The rooting of stem cuttings is one of the widely used forms of asexual propagation, a fact which you all know. It involves the placing of stem pieces with one or more buds under conditions that favor the


Author: James D. Kelley

PP: 72

The expanding use of containers for the production of nursery stock has created a need for more information regarding the production of woody plants by this method. Twenty years ago the growing of a plant in a restricted volume of soil was foreign to many nurserymen and many questions were unanswered concerning the cultural practices involved. Today we have a number of answers but still many questions remain to be answered.

Some of the biggest problems have been concerned with fertilization, growing medium, and winter protection. These are some of the items I would like to comment on today and hope that the results, of our studies over the past few years may be of value to you in solving some of your production problems associated with growing nursery stock in containers.

Fertilization — Fertilization appears to be one of the least understood factors in growing plants in containers. The purpose of fertilization is to provide an optimum supply of nutrients in order for plants of that particular


Author: Joerg Leiss

PP: 303

While grafting is described as any method which permits actual cambial contact between compatible plant parts, I will refer in this paper to grafting as the placing of a scion upon an understock, this then excludes budding.

The reason for graftage is largely the same in or outdoors; mainly propagation of desirable characteristics, such as shapes and forms, unusual colouring of leaves, abundance and quality of fruiting, and the slowing or speeding of growth. Our nursery grows strictly ornamental plants and my remarks will deal with a number of trees which we propagate by graftage. Before going into details, I will briefly describe our methods:—

1. Splice grafting and its variant whip and tongue. 2. Triangling when understocks are larger than the scion. This is generally the case. We like to have a well established understock to give us the desired vigorous growth. In many cases we rather wait a year to geb this more vigorous growth. 3. The last method we use is bark grafting, when the


Author: Richard A. Jaynes, George A. Messner

PP: 305

Several clones of chestnut have been selected and named because of desirable characteristics of blight resistance, form, vigor, and nut bearing. Many of these, selected primarily for orchard traits, are Chinese chestnuts, e.g. Nanking, Orrin, and Crane; others, selected largely for ornamental or forest use are complex hybrids between the Chinese, Japanese, and American chestnut, e.g. Clapper, Sleeping Giant, C9. Unfortunately large scale propagation of these or other chestnut clones has never proven feasible in the United States. Spring grafting with dormant scions has met with limited and variable success. Budding has failed, and the rooting of cuttings by many methods has invariably met with complete or nearly complete failure.

In 1963, Moore (4) described before this group a promising method he called the nurse-seed graft. The technique involved the grafting of a dormant scion into a germinated nut from which the root and shoot had been removed. Substances in the cotyledons of the


Author: F.O. Lanphear

PP: 311

The problem of weed control in transplant beds and field liners cannot be adequately covered in a few minutes, but I would like to discuss some new concepts that are particularly relevant to the topic. Needless to say, the problem of weed control in nurseries is of great magnitude, particularly in relation to transplant beds. In fact, estimates of weed control cost have been as high as $6000/Acre/year for transplant beds where weeding was by hand. (1) Cost in field liners have ranged from $125.00 to $600.00/A/year with manual or mechanical means. It is imperative that these costs be reduced since the cost of manual labor is continuing to increase at a rapid rate. The appearance of herbicides on the scene provide some tremendous possibilities in solving this problem.

Basically, herbicides are plant poisons. Fortunately, they are selectively poisonous. This selectivity is based on a number of factors, including the ability of some plants to degrade the chemical or inactivate it in some


Author: Sidney Waxman

PP: 316


In a previous paper presented to the Society on the rooting of blueberry cuttings, the author mentioned the possible economic benefit of rooting cuttings under fluorescent light rather than sunlight (7).

The major reason the use of fluorescent light may be more economical than sunlight is not due to the source of light, but to the types of structures that are used in conjunction with these sources of light.

In using sunlight, one is limited to the use of a glass or plastic greenhouse in which the heat losses are rather high. By the use of fluorescent light, on the other hand, almost any type of structure may be used. Ideally, of course, it would be one that is well insulated.

The advantage of using an insulated building is that its heat losses during the winter months would be far less than that of a greenhouse.

Another and equally important advantage is that within such a building, considerable control of the environment is possible. Rapid changes in temperature and


Author: John J. McGuire

PP: 322

Since the late 1930's when synthetic growth regulators were found to be effective in promoting rooting of cuttings, a wide variety of methods have been used to introduce these materials into stem tissues. We are all familiar with talc preparations used as a dust, and aqueous solutions used either as long term dilute soaks or short duration concentrated dips. The relative efficiency of these carriers and methods was covered extensively at a meeting of this society in 1959 (5,6,9). It was concluded that concentrated basal dips were superior to other methods of application.

It has been shown that crystalline indoleacetic acid (IAA) can enter the fatty portion of the cuticle of leaves without the aid of a solvent. Crystals have been applied to stems after the stem was scraped to facilitate rapid uptake of the auxin (3,4). Auxin has been soaked into wooden pegs and the pegs have been inserted into holes drilled into the cuttings (10). In England and America, cuttings have been exposed to


Author: Edward P. Hume

PP: 328

Cytokinens, scarcely known in plant propagation are, along with the gibberellins, opening new horizons in plant manipulations that cannot be ignored by any serious student of the field. These compounds affect more and varied functions in the plant kingdom than most of us consider possible. The rate of increase in research in this field is most astonishing. This paper merely calls attention to some of the findings. Those who wish to investigate the field more thoroughly are referred to Letham (15) and Miller (17) for recent and earlier reviews of the field.

Kinetin was the first product identified in this group and has been the subject of much investigation in this field. Now all compounds of this type affecting plant response are classified as cytokinens. The list of these and the number of different plants from which they have been extracted is increasing ever more rapidly. These compounds, along with the gibberellins and auxins are the regulators of all cell division, cell


Author: R.E. Farmer Jr, W.L. Nance

PP: 333

Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) is the subject of breeding programs designed to develop planting stock with potential for rapid growth, desirable wood properties, and pest resistance (4). Techniques for making controlled crosses within the species are essential to breeding, and their development constitutes an early phase of genetics research. This paper will describe techniques that are being used in the lower Mississippi Valley.

Controlled crossing techniques for the dioecious Populus species were developed in Europe and have been used there for several decades. The aspens (Section Leuce) may be crossed by placing bases of dormant branches in water after chilling requirements are met forcing these branches in greenhouses, and pollinating the female flowers. Fresh pollen is obtained by similarly forcing male flowers. Fertilized catkins are matured on the branches in three to four weeks. This procedure, originally developed for Salix, was first used for Populus by


Author: John Roller

PP: 338


The preparation of the land for open field propagation is very simple, as we practice it at Cartwrights. It consists of deep plowing, eighteen to twenty four inches deep, or sub-soiling. After this, a disc is run over the land as many times as is necessary to break up any clods and get it in good working condition. If necessary, we use a land leveler to level the field, or to give a smooth slope, but we prefer to use only a harrow as the land leveler packs the soil more than we like. After this, rows are spaced about thirty inches apart and are opened to a depth of four to six inches. The cuttings are stuck into these little furrows rather than on bedded rows.


Author: Rodney Bailey

PP: 341

In the past fifteen years there have been many types of mist propagation systems described at these meetings. The one that I have found to do the best job, most economically, employs many of the same techniques and principles with which you are familiar. As a point of reference this method shall be referred to as the Bailey Circular System. I have used this system only for the propagation of deciduous softwood cuttings in the summer.

I have selected an area that has a basic soil of loamy sand. Also, and I believe this is quite important, the area in which the beds are constructed is on a very gradual slope. Not steep but falling enough so that excess water may run off the surface rather than standing and then having to seep away.

The area is plowed and worked smooth with a disc and harrow. We are now ready to make the beds. With a dump-truck and a Melroe "Bobcat" loader, we apply three inches of sand over a 22 foot diameter circle. A metal garden edging forms the outside of the bed. With


Author: Harrison L. Flint

PP: 344

Winter storage of young nursery plants has been a popular topic of discussion for a long time, but increasing production of nursery stock in containers in the North has stimulated even greater interest on the subject. My first inclination in preparing to talk to you on this subject was to share with you some of my own experiences and experiences of other people in the New England area. But in the process of visiting nurseries and other establishments, watching their practices, and assembling all this information, I began to realize that if I were to follow my original plan I would probably do nothing more than add confusion to an already confused subject. The one thing that impressed me more than anything else in these visits is that there are so many successful methods in use. I think we've all been impressed by this fact as we have listened to speakers on this subject over the past several years. So for today, let's look for a few universal facts or common denominators that we can use

Author: John Massot

PP: 75

Container nursery stock is grown in an artificial manner in comparison with field-grown nursery stock and does, therefore, require more attention at specific times in order to produce a quality product, which will both sell and give satisfaction to the buyer.

What I have to say on quality is more or less the fruit of our own experiences over the last 8 or 9 years. I will indicate what we are doing and why we are doing it. Climatic conditions have to be taken into consideration; therefore, keep in mind that our ways of doing thinks have been geared to the climatic conditions in Vancouver, B. C., which may not be correct in a warmer, colder, or drier climate.

We started growing nursery stock in containers 8 years ago with only a few thousand 1-gallon cans to our present volume of over 100,000. In addition, we also grow a fair volume in 2¼", 3", 4" pots, 2 gallons and 5 gallons. We are not, by any means, a large producer of container-grown nursery stock, but we have always placed


Author: John G. Zelenka

PP: 351

Our firm, having been one of the first to attempt winter storage under northern conditions, and presently storing probably more plants than any other firm in the north, I feel that it might be enlightening to relate our experiences for whatever they may be worth. I feel it is an operation we cannot ignore.

First, may I outline the basic reasons for wanting to store evergreens over winter. First, in our location in west central lower Michigan, it is not uncommon for our spring digging season to begin around April 1st. Being a company that sells to the trade as far south as Kansas City. St. Louis, etc., we must be in a position to deliver when their selling season begins. Second, with a steady increase in retail competition, our customers require a plant in full color, free of all winter discoloration. Poly storage is one of the best ways I know to preserve good winter color. Third, is the fact that in our area common labor is more readily available in the fall than in the early spring.


Author: Andrew N. Adams Jr

PP: 352

Back in the middle of June 1964, while trimming our azaleas for the last time of the season, one of our men mentioned what a shame to throw away all those good cuttings. They were really too soft to stick and we still had lining out to do and just did not have the benches ready nor the time to stick cuttings. Azalea cuttings are normally ready here in Central Maryland anytime after the 4th of July, depending of course on the season.

We have a cold storage room 8' × 7' × 50', built of concrete block with one 5-ton refrigerator unit and two circulating fans cooling the structure. The structure is under ground with 3' of soil on top, so it carries a temperature close to 55° year round. We keep the temperature set at 38°F, which means it will run between 35° and 40°F. It is used primarily for precooling azalea plants brought in September for the Christmas season and also for holding azaleas back from blooming too soon, for late Easter and Mother's Day. Being empty in the summer, we thought it


Author: K.W. Mediums

PP: 356

Rooting mediums for cuttings have been discussed for centuries and probably originated when prehistoric man first thrust a spear into the ground. Innumerable materials have been used for this purpose and vary from field soil to sophisticated mixtures of organic and inorganic substances. Included among those which have been mentioned in the literature are sand of various types and particle size, peat moss of different forms, ashes, cinders, flue dust, sawdust, pumice, ground bark, sphagnum moss, soil, rice hulls, coffee, parchment, cocoa fiber, vermiculite, perlite, styrafoam, clacine clay, BR-8 blocks (processed wood fiber), water, and air.

A rooting medium should fulfill the following objectives:

  1. Maintain the cutting in a properly oriented position.
  2. Minimize moisture loss from the submerged portion of the cutting.
  3. Provide a suitable environment for the elongation of roots.

Although there are various schools of thought on the characteristics of a good rooting medium, the


Author: Earl H. Robinson

PP: 363

At Medford Nursery we have tried to mechanize as much of our operation as possible. The first area we worked with was the propagating bench. The tedious and time-consuming job of filling and emptying benches did not appeal to us. Certainly a more efficient use of greenhouse space was possible. We looked to our western friends and found that they felt somewhat the same way.

We began by using a poured concrete bench suspended by a 12 x 16 x 4 cinder block protruding under the concrete slab on the wall side and 1¼" pipe legs on the other side. Copper tubing spaced at 6" centers graduated from 1" to ¾" to ½", was used for our heat source. This formed a radiant heat slab. The 180° water is tempered down to 90° to give a good even heat. The two benches are zoned separately. The two zones enable us to have two different temperatures in each bench, or to shut one bench down completely. The air temperature is on another zone. This allows us to efficiently keep flats warm and air cool. We also


Author: Harvey Gray

PP: 365

Many plant propagators recognize the value of oxygen in a rooting medium. This is evident in the literature of our Society. The word "sharp" occurs frequently when sand is used to support the cutting while in the process of rooting. Other defining words are used throughout the literature.

It is NOT my intention to discuss details concerning sterility, nutrient content, or pH of the rooting media. Rather, my concern is the oxygen content available in the media for active rooting.

B. A. Briggs states (I.P.P.S. Proceedings, 1966) if constant over-wetting of the cutting stem occurred when using the "air rooting" technique, poor rooting followed; if not, good rooting resulted. This demonstrates the necessity of a favorable water/oxygen relationship in the medium.

On Long Island plant propagators seek a commercial source of water washed "concrete grade" sand for the rooting medium. Very often the amount and value of the washing can be questioned. The mechanical analysis of a lot of sand


Author: Richard W. Bosley

PP: 366


The use of wood residuals, as a container medium, is becoming quite popular. Many nurseries are using proportions running as high as 80–100%. This utilization of wood residual materials has been made possible by the development of methods of stabilizing the product against nitrogen withdrawal from the growing medium.

I wish to acknowledge the great service that Dr. O. A. Matkin and his Soil and Plant Laboratory, Inc., has made to the industry as a whole and more specifically to our nursery in the development of wood products into suitable growing media.


Author: Edmund V. Mezitt

PP: 371

Rhododendron P. J. M. is a hybrid of Rhododendron dauricum sempervirens and Rhododendron carolinianum made in 1940. It is very floriferous blooming every single year on every stem, and its winter foliage of rich mahogany tones is very attractive.

Propagation is not entirely without some difficulty. Being an early grower similar to Rhododendron mucronulatum but also a woody type, it cannot be treated as a softwood cutting during the summer but must be started before the buds develop too much in the fall. If top growth starts before the roots, the cutting cannot survive. Therefore a cool greenhouse with good bottom heat is a desirable situation.

We use sand and peat mixture as a medium, hormodin powder 3, or the last few years hormodine powder C, on cuttings started around October 1st for best results. Intermittent mist is necessary although the polyethylene tent has worked, if kept shaded so heat will not build up.

One big advantage of this plant is the ease in growing, once rooted, and the


Author: Dave Dugan

PP: 377

MODERATOR DUGAN: How can Turkish filbert be propagated other than by seeding?

BILL FLEMER: It can be grafted on Corylus avellana understock. The understock will sucker some but the grafted plant grows perfectly well.

MODERATOR DUGAN: Is there such a thing as Japanese oak and where can it be purchased?

JOE MCDANIEL: There are two or three of them. They grow as evergreens. They look like a holly tree at a distance without the berries. They are available in a few nurseries in the Southeast. I noticed Tom Dodd had a couple of trees in his back yard but I did not notice any acorns.

MODERATOR DUGAN: What is the proper way to plant a peat pot?

PETE VERMEULLEN: As we mentioned the other day, make sure the peat pot is soaking wet when you plant it. Then either take the rim off the top of the peat pot or else plant it deep enough so that the rim is below the soil level. If there are roots coming through the pot, there is nothing else to do but if they have not broken through the peat pot as yet,


Author: B. Humphrey, P. Dummer

PP: 389

ENGLAND HUMPHREY: Pete Dummer and I are sitting here in Winchester, one time Capital of England, when the Romans were around anyway. We are going to look at a few slides together concerned with the subject which we have been asked to talk about which is Stock/Scion Relationships. We are going to treat with this in a very practical way and we hope some of the information that comes out during our discussion will be of use to you in your propagation efforts.

The first point we want to make is that the stock and the scion retain their identity although of course we all know one influences the other as has been shown on many occasions by East Malling Research Station. Here we have a fairly fast growing scion of Fraxinus angustifolia worked probably onto F. excelsior and you have got this rather ugly union which you can see, I am ashamed to say, at Kew Gardens. Now what is your comment on this one Pete?

DUMMER: I am glad you let me get a word on this Brian, because if I was grafting


Author: R.L. Ticknor, A.N. Roberts

PP: 397


Nursery performance of sixteen rose rootstocks budded with five scion varieties, Etoile de Holland, Lowell Thomas, Picture, Pres. Hoover and White Prince, were reported at the Western Region meeting in 1963 (2). The majority of the rootstocks rooted well with the exception of O. S. U. 1 and 8, P.&D. 5214 and 5360, and Dr. Huey. On a comparative basis, five of the rootstocks, D-1, Ginn, P.&D. 5222 and 5234, and Van, proved to be outstanding for bud stand with the five scion varieties used in this trial. Four other rootstock-scion combinations were outstanding, O. S. U. 1 and Burr with Pres. Hoover, Burr with Etoile de Holland, and 5250 with Picture.


Author: Charles Pfeiffer, Alan Pettibone

PP: 78


Injury of container-grown ornamental plants often occurs during severe winters. Commercial nurserymen have long sought to prevent this loss by over-winter storage in protected areas, use of various mulches, or covering containers with polyethylene tents. Over-wintering problems have often limited the utilization of container-growing in northern climates.

Winter injury or death has been attributed to intercellular or intracellular freezing within the plant, tissue desiccation due to transpiration exceeding water absorption, a combination of these (5, 11), and the result of rapid temperature fluctuation of the tissue (9). Maximov (7) proposed that the question of temperature influence on the root needed further investigation. He postulated that plants from different ecological groups would respond differently. Later Doring (4) found woody plants with early spring leaf development and flowering were not influenced as much by soil temperature as plants with the late spring


Author: Fred B. Widmoyer, Darrell T. Sullivan

PP: 403

For the past several years there has been an increase in the number of papers discussing the relationships of stocks and scions of ornamental plants. The basic phenomena occurring during the re-establishment of graft's were presented at the 12th Annual Meeting (Widmoyer, 1962). Snyder (1963) pointed out that the major areas of propagation research of ornamental plants are concentrated on the rooting of cuttings and germination of seeds. Budding and grafting have received the major attention for fruit crops. As a result of continued research and experience, the use of vegetatively propagated rootstocks has become standard practice (Fletcher, 1964). Most propagators recognize the value of graftage over seedage or cuttings as a technique, as well as the associated disadvantages.

In selecting a stock for any plant, choice is limited to those which have a close botanical relationship. Generally, seedlings of the species are chosen as the scion. Grafts between genera are not unusual, but


Author: Walter Van Vloten

PP: 86

Our cuttings are rooted in a 100 × 15 ft. glass greenhouse. There are benches on both sides, leaving a wide center path so that a little carrier can go through for quicker handling of the flats. Under the bench are 4 two-inch pipes for hot water heat. On top are plastic heating cables six inches apart; these are protected by &frac:14-inch strips, four inches apart. These strips also permit the heat to be more evenly distributed; they also contribute to better drainage.

Our entire production of cuttings is rooted in what we call "deep flats"; they are 12" by 18" and 3½inches deep. The bottom of the flat consists of four pieces so we have five openings where water can drain through.

Our rooting mix is a light one, 50% coarse sand, 30% yellow bulk peat and 20% coarse perlite. When the flats are filled with this mix, we then soak them in Panodrench, a mercury-base material (2 teaspoons per 3 gallons of water). In addition, all the cuttings are dipped in a Captan solution (6 tablespoons per


Author: Lloyd Smith

PP: 88

In this discussion of large trees, we shall be referring to trees of two-inch caliper and larger. Smaller trees are easily handled bare-root in the dormant season and we are all familiar with container-grown trees in sizes from 5 to 15 gallon. The successful moving of very large trees, either bare-root or balled and burlaped, during the dormant season, has been done for many years, so that we are not entering a new field. The increasing demand for large trees available for landscape development at all seasons of the year, prompted me to include large container-grown trees in my operation.

Perhaps, "Establishing Large Trees In Containers," would be a better title, as most of our large trees are field-grown first. However, as nursery stock planted in containers and grown for one or more seasons qualifies as "container-grown", our title may still be applicable.

Our containers are constructed from one-inch rough cedar lumber, metal-banded collapsible boxes. Loose bottoms drop in and are