Volume 25

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Author: R.L. Ticknor

PP: 29

One of my first attempts at rooting Cornus florida cuttings came when a large supply of potential cuttings were available from moving a 12-year-old plant of C.f. ‘Waltham’. The cuttings were divided into three lots: large, 8–10" long; medium, 6–8" long; and small, 3–4" long, on February 26, 1971. Two hormone treatments, 0.8% IBA in talc and 0.8% IBA + 5% benomyl, plus an untreated check were used. None of the check cuttings rooted while 50, 60, and 90% of large, medium, and small cuttings treated with 0.8% IBA rooted. With 0.8% IBA + 5% Benomyl results were 50, 10 and 20% for large, medium, and small cuttings. Small cuttings treated with 0.8% IBA gave the highest percentage rooting, but larger cuttings produced a heavier root system. There was no apparent advantage of using Benomyl with the IBA.

With the encouragement of being able to root up to 90% the next attempt to root hardwood cuttings of C.f. ‘Waltham’ was on March 6, 1974 when cuttings from the plants produced in 1971 were


Author: Ted Van Veen

PP: 72

In a 1932 Van Veen Nursery record book there is a listing of 44 rhododendron cultivars, totaling 3,125 cuttings, which were set in an outside ground bed — the old fashioned hotbed type. The uniqueness here is one of the first installations of lead cable for electric bottom heat, and a rooting record of 78%. This percentage is a remarkable achievement for an age when rooting of rhododendrons was so little known. Hormones, fungicides and misting yet to come.

Since that time the production of rhododendrons has accelerated to many millions each year. However, the overall percentage of rooting has improved relatively little, in spite of our more modern production methods and the research efforts employed over the years. Our rooting percentage at Van Veen Nursery today is seldom much better 85%.

Briefly, I will review our present method of rhododendron propagation starting with a few cuttings taken as early as the first part of June. The bulk of the production starts around the first of


Author: Al Fordham

PP: 459

Prior to the establishment of his own business firm in 1945, the recipient of this year’s Award of Merit worked for the U.S.D.A. Soil Conservation Service as nursery manager and as director of the Agricultural Bureau of the St. Louis Chamber of Commerce.

In addition to many years of service on various committees, including a number of years as chairman of the Public Relations Committee of the American Nurserymen’s Association, he has been active in a variety of nursery associations. He is past president of the Greater St. Louis Landscape and Nurserymens’ Association, Missouri Association of Nurserymen, Western Association of Nurserymen, Mail Order Association of Nurserymen and the International Plant Propagator’s Society. More recently he was elected to severe on the American Association on Nurserymen’s Board of Directors.

One of his most progressive achievements was to institute a training program that would acquaint high school students with vocational opportunities that were to be


Author: Raymond L. Self

PP: 460

Azalea culture in containers and soil as late as 1952 involved the use of German peat as a growing medium for both containers and bed/grown azaleas. The fertilization program consisted of the use of phosphate in the soil and corrective additions of sulphur, aluminum sulphate, and frequent iron sulphate sprays to keep the soil acid (1, 2).

My research on azaleas started at the Ornamental Horticulture Field Station in Mobile in 1952. The need for lime, the detrimental effect of excess phosphorus in the soil, and the need for a micronutrient mixture to supply necessary micronutrients, either in the poting soil or in a topdressing soon became evident (5, 6, 8). Monthly applications of a complete fertilizer were also shown to prevent fall leafdrop and make azaleas more cold hardy (9). Additional applications of nitrate of sulfate of potash further hardens and increases cold resistance.

Our research also indicated the value of adding dolomite lime to the 8-8-8 and to the topdress mixture


Author: Steven C. Prochaska, Thomas A. Fretz

PP: 465

The demand for quality shade trees for landscape use has increased greatly during the past few years. Rising labor and operating costs, the demand for quality plants in a shorter period of time, and the need for improved cultural practices, necessitates the need for more efficient methods of reducing weed populations that compete with nursery crops for water, light and nutrients.

Several problems complicate the control of weeds in the shade tree nursery. First, heavy spring and fall workloads leave little time for weed control practices. Secondly, adverse weather in early spring and late fall make it difficult to cultivate, necessitating a greater dependence on herbicides. Thirdly, nursery crops are generally in the same location for several years and therefore it may be impractical to cultivate and impossible to fumigate. Fourth, most herbicides are developed for use on crops other than shade trees or nursery stock, consequently they usually do not provide the long soil residual


Author: Grady L. Wadsworth

PP: 471

Eight herbicides were evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing weed growth in 32 plant cultivars of containerized nursery stock. Oxadiazon at 4 and 8 lb. ai/A (active ingredients per acre) gave excellent weed control with only slight phytotoxicity. Oryzalin at 4 and 8 lb. gave excellent weed control but exhibited sever phytotoxicity. The combination of alachlor at 8 lb. and simazine at 2 lb. gave good weed control and were only slightly phytotoxic. Alachlor at 8 lb. gave fair to good weed control and was slightly phytotoxic. Profluralin at 4 and 8 lb. gave fair weed control and damaged the nursery stock the least of any of the herbicides tested. Napropamide at 4 and 8 lb. gave fair weed control and was slightly phytotoxic. Simazine at 1 and 2 lb. gave fair weed control and was slightly phytotoxic. Trifluralin at 4 and 8 lb. gave the poorest weed control of all the materials evaluated, but since most of the weed population were broadleaf weeds this result was not surprising. Trifluralin was only slightly phytotoxic. Pronamide at 2 and at 4 lb. gave poor control of weeds and was the second most phytotoxic.

Author: John B. Wight Jr.

PP: 477

Horizontal juniper production is handled by two departments at Wight Nurseries, Inc.: Propagation and Conifer Container Growing. All of our propagation is done by a crew who spends its entire time in propagation. We have attempted to divide our system into as many simple jobs as possible and through various means determine a piece-rate basis for paying for each job. For instance, we have a piece-rate price for filling peat pots; for sticking juniper cuttings three per peat pot; for sticking juniper cuttings one per peat pot. We also have piece-rate prices per employee for filling 1-gal cans; for canning peat pots to 1-gal cans; for shifting 1-gal cans to 2-gal; or for shifting 1-gal cans to 3-gal.

We have found that the people who are paid on a production basis are the most productive people on the nursery. They make the most money and they are the happiest and best employees, while still giving us the lowest unit cost. Now that combination is hard to beat!

All of you who have heard me


Author: John Giles

PP: 480

Polk Nursery Co. is a 100 acre container nursery located in central Florida. Shipping of container plants is an integral part of the program of any wholesale nursery. This year we shipped 2,000,000 containers; this included 600,000 container rose bushes in bud and bloom. We do not use cardboard boxes in our operation.

Order filling and shipping is a challenge itself. The first problem in our operation is a logistical one being divided into two locations, 5 miles apart. Order filling starts in our office which is staffed by an extremely talented group of individuals. Orders are normally phoned into our office by the customer, or by our two salesmen.

Orders are figured by hand to fill a truck with maximum number of units within a specific route or geographical area within economic reason. The next step is on to the computer for customer invoicing, extending of total plant quantity and size, and print-out pick-up sheet for our field pick-up crew. Plant tags are then assembled for


Author: R.J. Raker, Harry A.J. Hoitink

PP: 482

Hardwood bark compost proved to be an excellent container-growing medium substrate for production of Pieris japonica and Rhododendron ‘Nova Zembla’ and ‘Roseum Elegans’. Growth indices and root growth ratings were greater for test plants produced in a composted hardwood bark-sand medium than for plants produced in Michigan peat-sand and Michigan peat-sand-Haydite media. Some root rot caused by Pythrum irregulare was observed on all plants grown in peat-sand and Haydite-peat-sand media, but not on plants grown in bark compost. Increased root growth in the bark-sand medium may be due in part to the absence of root rot.

Author: Krystyna Bojarczuk

PP: 485

Lilac cuttings obtained from parental trees during flowering time root better than those cut later. Pyrogallol and indole increased the number of rooted cuttings per plot and showed synergistic effects on the number of roots and root length per cutting. Ascorbic, nicotinic, and boric acids used in talc with NAA increased additively, or synergistically, the total length and number of roots per cutting. H3BO3, ZnSO4, and MnSO4 sprays on the cuttings markedly stimulated rooting. Spraying the leaves of rooted cuttings with GA promoted their development.

Author: F.T. Davies Jr., B.C. Moser

PP: 492

Certain species of plants can be reproduced asexually by means of leaf cuttings. A leaf cutting is composed of an entire leaf (lamina and petiole), or part of a leaf, which is removed from a plant — without an auxillary bud or a piece of stem — for the purpose of propagation. Of great importance in the propagation of leaf cuttings is the development of numerous adventitious buds at the base of the petiole. These buds develop into full, bushy self-supporting plants more readily than from a bud on a stem cutting.

There are two types of Rieger begonias Begonia bertini ‘Compacti’ ×B. socotrana: The Schwabenland type is commercially propagated from leaf cuttings which produce multiple vegetative basal shoots and has an upright form. The Aphrodite type is propagated by vegetative stem cuttings and is a pendulous form; leaf cuttings do not consistently produce adventitious buds at the base of the leaf petiole.

The cytokinins are a growth regulator group reported to stimulate bud initiation


Author: William Snyder, Charles Parkerson

PP: 500

This session of the program convened at 3:15 p.m. with Dr. William Snyder and Mr. Charles Parkerson serving as moderators.

MODERATOR PARKERSON: Isn't some caution needed in applying Lasso in polyhouses? This was not brought out in the papers presented at the meeting today.

I reported on problems of using Lasso in polyhouses at the Chicago meeting. This material should not be used in polyhourses because it will kill plants in there. We are still experimenting with it and we don't have any trouble as long as we keep it out of polyhouses.

WAYNE LOVELACE: I know of one instance of the use of Lasso in a polyhouse which effectively put the house out of use for one full year. Lasso was spread on a chat floor and bedding plants were set on this; the crop was a complete loss. Charcoal was used to try to tie up the material but it did no good and crops placed in the house after the bedding plants also were badly affected or completely killed. The plastic had to be stripped from the house


Author: Verl L. Holden

PP: 74

Landscapers and gardeners have found kinnikinnick [Arctostaphylos uva-ursi] to be a very useful ground cover for dry, sandy, rocky or poor soil. The difficulties in getting the plant propagated and established, planting, and transplanting kinnikinnick, I have been at the bottom of dismal failure and to the peak of fantastic success. The last few years have settled down to a series of successes, and we are finally on the right track.

As in propagating many plants, I believe timing is of utmost importance. Cuttings can be rooted earlier or later than my schedule, but one has to consider transplanting from the cutting bed into pots. Losses of 50% or greater can take place at this critical time. Kinnikinnick seems to have two times of the year when root initiation is at a peak. One period is in the fall, from about September 15 to October 15, and the other from March 1 to April 1. In following these time periods then, the cuttings are stuck from September 15 to October 15, and transplanted


Author: Morris Van Meter

PP: 77

Gaultheria shallon is perhaps the most common shrub in the understory of the Pacific Northwest forests. It reaches its largest size in the fogbelt along the Pacific coast where dense,-extensive patches of the species often hinder the establishment of forest reproduction on cut-over and burned-over areas. Related species are found in northeastern Oregon and in the Rocky Mountains. The flowers are pink, about ¼" long, borne in loose clusters. The fruit is bluish-black, edible, and approximately 5/16 in diameter. Plants are found on dry to moist, well-drained sites in the sun or shade in the western part of the states from British Columbia to southern California (1). It is a handsome broadleaf evergreen shrub, usually growing 1’ to 3’ but occasionally to 8’ to 10’ in height.

Because of the habit and range of Gautheria shallon, it became of interest to the Washington State Highway Department as a candidate for roadside planting. In 1971 we contracted to grow 60,000 plants in 4" pots of salal for


Author: W.D. Christie

PP: 79

We usually start take cuttings about the third week in June and continue off and on during the summer as cutting material is available, up to the third week of August.

We start out with the stock which is being grown in gallon cans in the greenhouse from last year’s cuttings, then take a crop of cuttings from our outdoor stock plants, and end up with more material from the greenhouse.

We like to take our cuttings first thing in the morning while it is still cool and, if possible, we try to pick a day when it is overcast. Ideally, when using soft cuttings from the greenhouse it is best to have a period of a few days when the temperatures are not too high.

Cuttings of Magnolia × soulangeana cultivars are usually 6 to 8, and sometimes 10 inches long, with 3 nodes. We first remove the bottom leaf, then reduce the size of the second leaf, and pinch out the soft tip. The cutting is given a one-inch basal wound and dipped in 0.8% IBA.

The rooting medium is 3 parts coarse sand and one part


Author: John Mitsch

PP: 81

On a small nursery of 10 acres employing 20 to 25 individuals, over a thousand cultivars can be found at the present time, including conifers and a broad range of azaleas, camellias, heathers, rhododendrons, some selected deciduous stock and a few perennials. During our 28 year history, we have come more and more to specialize in dwarf conifers until now over 500 cultivars can be found on the grounds.

Continous experimentation and observation have helped us formulate some ideas about specific times and methods of propagation — although we still get surprises! Gradually we have worked out a general time schedule which helps in propagating such a diverse collection. This schedule is frequently updated as we continue to experiment and learn from fellow propagators.

Cultivars (or species) are listed the month propagation is started.(See the following sample Propagation Schedule). Shaded areas are prime time; solid line, good; broken line, "risky but possible" if our schedule prohibited


Author: James O’Friel, Bruce Usrey

PP: 85

MODERATORS: James O’Friel and Bruce Usrey.

MODERATOR O'FRIEL: Here is the first question. Why do you use peat and perlite in rooting mixes? There are others just as good.

HOWARD BROWN: I think one of the reasons using peat-perlite more and more is that they are fairly standard and lightweight, and they are fairly uniform throughout my experience. If you take compost or sand, you may get different grades of sand and some are not really clean. Peat-perlite mixes have proven to be fairly standard over a period of time.

MODERATOR O'FRIEL: Has anyone had a successful experience using Osmocote as a fertilizer in the rooting medium?

BARRIE COATE: I can't say that I have had good results, but the requirement of the IPPS to contribute a paper every few years brought forth a paper that told about a terrible success with Osmocote. We tried Osmocote at two different levels - that is, scattered at top and incorporated all through the mix; we tried also blood meal; and some directly on


Author: Barry A. Eisenberg

PP: 91

Buxus japonica. Raphiolepis indica ‘Rosea’. Trachelosperum jasminoides. Viburnum tinus and Weigela florida were used to determine if rooted cuttings could be directly potted into one-gallon containers. Direct potting of rooted cuttings offers a grower a production operation that could reduce labor and materials costs. Direct potting of rooted cuttings was successful with four of the five species used in this study and demonstrated that a grower may be able to achieve an equal or better quality one-gallon container plant by direct potting. The condition of the root system at time of transplanting, the soil mix and conditions used to reduce desiccation are the primary concerns a grower will need to evaluate for his specific growing conditions. The type of root system, either fibrous, stiffly branched or wiry, appears to be a root characteristic that lends itself to determining if a plant can be directly potted.

Author: Bill Curtis

PP: 96

In winter protection, "Webfoot" style, we are striving for saleable nursery stock in the spring that will bring the buyer to our nursery again and again. We are also looking at costs — a major part of our costs is labor; in fact, the greatest cost of winter protection is LABOR. We must so structure our winter protection facilities to keep this cost to a minimum. A great deal of labor cost can be eliminated if the stock can be grown in the structure used to protect the plants during cold weather. For the most part we leave our plants where they are grown, covering them prior to winter. We do move some stock from the canned area to larger structures before severe winter weather arrives.

We have for years used steel reinforcing concrete mesh. It is known in the trade as 6×6×8. This wire reinforcing mesh comes in a 7’ wide roll, 150’ long. Cut into 10’ wide sections it will give a quonset frame 105’ long. A foot can be left between each section, gaining an additional 14’. This material, on


Author: Richard Flint

PP: 98

The decision to mechanize any one aspect of a nursery must be tied to various other factors if it is to be effective.
  1. A production flow line should be worked out.
  2. Be sure of worker participation.
  3. Can any of the equipment be used to advantage elsewhere?
  4. If extra production is envisaged as a result, can it be sold?
  5. A carefully planned training program.
  6. A costing system.

The benefits that can be achieved are:

  1. To reduce the heavy work done by staff.
  2. To speed up work done by staff and thereby reducing the number of staff required, or increasing the volume of production with the same staff.
  3. To reduce the number of menial and unpalatable jobs performed by staff, thus making the total job more desirable.

An efficient approach to the "manufacture" of plants will help to encourage the right type of people to come into the industry. As with farming, it should not be the type of job that school leavers decide to take up because they can find nothing else. We should aim to make horticulture one of the most


Author: D.A. Newcomb

PP: 102

Fumigation of citrus nursery soils has come into general use during the past 10 or 15 years. The increasing difficulty of finding suitable citrus soil which is free from harmful nematodes and phytophthora fungus has made it necessary to treat nursery sites in order to grow disease-free plants.

The first attempts at soil fumigation of seed bed soil at our Thermal, California nursery resulted in a near disaster. Citrus seed planted in either methyl bromide or Vapam-treated soil sprouted and grew normally at the start, but when the seedlings reached a height of 3 to 4 inches, growth stopped or was retarded in large areas of the beds. In some small areas of varying size the seedlings grew normally. Similar stunting of citrus seedbeds has been observed following soil fumigiation in Spain, Peru, Venezuela, and Florida.

Studies made at the Citrus Research Center of the University of California at Riverside showed a deficiency of phosphorus as well as some of the micronutrients in the stunted


Author: John Mathies

PP: 31

We have found at our nursery that T (shield) budding is the fastest and by far the most successful budding method. However, to achieve a 90–95% take the following basic conditions must exist:
  1. Soil should be of good tilth with a good balanced feeding program and weeds kept well under control, both before and after planting.
  2. Understock must be disease-free and of good quality.
  3. Budwood should come from an indexed source, if possible. If not, it should be selected from trees and shrubs with good colour and vigour.
  4. Budding knives must be kept sharp always.
  5. A high level of sanitation, probably the most important single factor in a successful bud take, must be maintained.
  6. Bud-eye maturity must coincide with the ripening of the understock.

We acquire our understock seedlings from the United States, Holland, Belgium and Canada; I like to bring them in as early as possible, at which time we dip them in Benlate and place them temporarily in cold storage. Early in April, we begin


Author: J.A. Dangerfield

PP: 105

Greater than 80% of all plants are reported to form either ectotrophic or endotrophic mycorrhizal roots in a symbiotic association with fungi. This association modifies the biology of the plant and provides a beneficial effect by increasing nutrient uptake, deterring root pathogens and increasing plant resistance to environmental stress. The influence of the mycorrhizal associations will vary with the different fungal symbionts and as environmental conditions at different planting sites change. For these reasons, scientists and practicing nurserymen are now combining their efforts in an attempt to obtain maximum potential from selected manipulation of the mycorrhizal association.

Author: David J. Ormrod

PP: 112

Financially successful plant propagation requires a conscientious effort to reduce losses due to pathogenic fungi and bacteria to a low level.

Three basic steps are involved: (1) use of disease-free plant material (2) use of pathogen-free rooting media (3) prevention of infection or contamination.

Fungicides have a place in each of the three steps:

In Step 1, to ensure that seeds, cuttings, etc. are free of pathogens up to the time they are placed in the rooting medium, broad spectrum fungicides have long been used. Two methods of application are involved here:

A. Seed Treatment Chemicals:

  1. Mercurials, very effective against a wide range of seed and soil-borne pathogens, can no longer be used because of environmental contamination problems.
  2. Captan 75W (Orthocide) controls most fungi which happen to be on the outside of seed and prevents early damping off due to organisms in soil.
  3. Thiram 75W (Arasan, Panoram, Tersam 75, Thylate, TMTD) is similar to captan in its broad

Author: Bruce A. Briggs

PP: 116

The type of tissue culture which we are considering may be defined as the development of new plants in an artificial medium under aseptic conditions from very small pieces of plants. Propagation may be accomplished from embryos, seeds, tissues, stems, shoot tips, root tips, callus, single cells or pollen grains (1). For successful propagation, new roots and/or shoots or small embryos must develop in order to produce the new plants. The kind of growth pattern which develops depends upon the genetic potential of the plant cultured and upon the chemical and physical environment to which it is subjected.

We nurserymen are accustomed to using other methods of propagation but should keep our minds open to the many new future possibilities of this technique. It can accomplish a much more rapid mass production of limited propagating stock, it can recover disease-free plants, and it can show us new ideas and methods which we can apply to our current ways of propagating plants.

There are


Author: W.J. Clore, Hsu-Jen Yang

PP: 119

Tissue culture of asparagus provides a technique for mass production of superior clonal material for increasing production by mass production of staminate clones; increasing proven parents that result in superior crosses for the production of large quantities of high quality F1 seed; and for developing pathogen-free stock.

Author: Randall W. Burr

PP: 122

I will discuss the practical aspects of tissue culturing for the purpose of mass-producing plants for a commercial nursery. It has just been in the last few years that the work of tissue-culturists, such as Dr. Tosh Murashige at the University of California, Riverside, has been tried in practical applications by commercial nurseries. This discussion will concern the application of tissue culture for the mass production of Boston fern [Nephrolepsis exaltata ‘Bostoniensis’]. We have learned much from Dr. Tosh Murashige at the University level, but we have found that their procedures and techniques must be amended when applying them to a commercial lab. We haven’t the funding, time, nor the high quality of personnel that a University has, so we have adopted their techniques to our own special requirements.

The actual proliferation of the ferns begins with the stolon tips, or runner tips, from a parent plant. The tips are collected and brought to the "clean air" station where they are sterilized by placing them in a bleach solution for a given amount of time, then they are run


Author: Harry E. Sommer

PP: 125

Conditions for obtaining adventitious buds on embryos of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) are given. These buds have been excised and rooted to produce plantlets.

Author: Wilbur C. Anderson

PP: 129

It was necessary to reduce the potassium concentration in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) formula (3) for sustained shoot growth of rhododendron seedlings and shoots. The KNO3 concentration was reduced to 950 mg/l and the NH4NO3 increased to 2000 mg/l. Other constituents required in the basal medium for the Stage II shoot multiplication phase were: adenine sulfate dihydrate 80 mg/l; IAA 4 mg/l; and N62-isopentenyl)-adenine (2iP) 15 mg/l. This medium supported the development of 6.2 new shoots per culture in 8 weeks. The new shoots arose from axillary buds of the original shoot explants and axillary buds of new developing shoots.

Author: Bayne F. Vance

PP: 136

As Daubenmire (2) has observed water is the closest approximation of a universal solvent. It has the capability of dissolving soil minerals and is the medium through which both organic and inorganic solutes enter the plant and move from cell to cell. It is a reagent in photosynthesis and is essential for the maintenance of plant turgidity.

As well as being a necessary factor for plant growth water is also used in nursery operations to manipulate climatic factors through such practices as frost protection and for cooling in periods of extreme heat.

The quality of water is often beyond the control of the nurseryman; however in many situations the nurseryman is able to monitor and alter some aspects of water quality.

The contamination of water used for irrigation purposes can occur through physical, biological, or chemical means.

Physical contamination of a water supply with sand or larger soil particles or from organic debris can result in clogged sprinkler and mist lines and


Author: John Rendell

PP: 144

Prior to selecting a sample of holdings for a national costing of ornamental trees and shrubs, which was commissioned by the Ministry of Agriculture and is currently in progress, the Agricultural Economics Research Unit of the University of Bristol, as coordinating centre for the study, obtained details of hardy nursery stock (HNS) acreages relating to the June 1971 census. These data were analysed and the results published in August 19741. It is this report, brought up-to-date and supplemented, which forms the basis of this article.

Setting the Scene (Table 1). There were in England and Wales in 1971 nearly 3,000 producers and some 16,000 acres of hardy nursery stock. Of this area, 2,700 acres were occupied by fruit trees and bushes, and in the discussion of demand which follows later, this section of the industry has been deliberately excluded as being unrepresentative. A considerable proportion of its output is by and for commercial fruit-growers and, in contrast to ornamentals,


Author: Hugh Nunn

PP: 154

Nursery accounting and nursery economics are subjects which, in my experience, do not excite the majority of nurserymen. Perhaps it is that most nurserymen have come into their profession because of a natural inclination to work with plant material rather than with pieces of paper on a vast executive desk. The prospect of being chair-bound is anathema to many plantsmen and is something to be avoided at all costs.

There is also the possibility that people who call themselves accountants or economists are people who speak a strange language not at all like that of the nurseryman. Conversely, the nurseryman probably sounds strange to the accountant! Each has his own jargon which to the uninitiated appears as a barrier to understanding. In almost any situation where ‘jargon barriers’ occur, it is highly likely that a certain amount of mutual misunderstanding will develop between the groups involved. At worse, misunderstanding leads to distrust.

May I say that if the picture I have


Author: Philip A. Barker

PP: 33

Acer grandidentatum is practically a diminutive of Acer saccharum to which it is closely related. Widely distributed throughout the Intermountain region of the United States, its attributes include outstanding foliage coloration in the fall and tolerance of drought and alkaline soil conditions. There was highly significant variation in number of seed-filled samaras harvested from 86 plants in 1972; also from plants at different elevations. Empty samaras resulted from aborted embryos and infestation by larvae of a Euclyptus weevil. By March 9, 1973, 36 seed lots had germinated out of 76 that had been stratified. The radicle length means of these germinated seed lots ranged between 2.6 and 25.4 mm. The mean height of the seedlings grown from seven representative seed lots ranged between 4.34 and 5.98 cm at 1-year age and 16.35 and 29.10 cm at 2-year age.

Author: David Barnes

PP: 159

When I first joined the nursery business in the 50’s I was introduced to pricing of nursery stock by my boss saying, "Find out what other nurseries are charging? What is our stock availability? What is the availability within the trade? How many did we sell last year?"

Having sweated blood to obtain this, very little notice was taken of it as each proprietor played his hunch — "Oh, that plant will stand another shilling".

Nobody could tell me what contribution that plant made to the business. The attitude was, "We are making money, so what the hell". Now that margins are being squeezed, further information must become available to enable management to plan ahead of inflation. Once a nursery reaches the slippery slope to Financial Trouble there is nothing that can be done unless the details and reasons are obtainable quickly. This applies to a general nursery more than the specialist grower.

Most well run nursery businesses produce an annual trading budget with profit forecast. A simple


Author: Geoff J.E. Yates

PP: 163

Method Study as a branch of Work Study makes better use of time and energy by developing the most effective method of working. What I am about to describe is not how to work faster and faster but better.

Every job should really be observed and recorded on its own, since where I insert cuttings today may be entirely different to next week or where you root your own material. However, the principles that I have used in this example can be applied right through the complete range of propagation from cuttings.

I want you to ask yourselves and select what is the key doing operation required to root the more common material which is to be handled in large numbers? … To me, it is the insertion of the prepared cuttings to permit the best conditions for rooting to be applied quickly and effectively. Skill is required for selecting and making cuttings — though we might argue that one — but once our criteria are set others should be able to follow the example of what makes a suitable cutting. We


Author: Janice Anstey

PP: 167

When we speak of reducing costs we usually think in terms of cutting down on the use of our resources — reducing our use of land, labor and capital, But, by contrast, the propagation methods we are using require more space, more labor, more time and therefore more cost — but they do reduce the overall cost of producing a saleable plant.

I should say, however, that none of these ideas is new. We have merely adapted the methods used by other people or, in some cases, our own methods used by other people or in some cases our own methods but we think that they are useful. We have selected four examples to illustrate what we are doing.

(1) For a start consider pyracantha. We used to put the cuttings in seed trays in a conventional mist house and, being economical people, we put 54 cuttings in a tray. When they were rooted we knocked them out and potted them into 3" pots to overwinter in the glasshouse ready for containerizing the following spring.

There were two problems with this system —


Author: Roy Bisson

PP: 172

The past four years in Guernsey are remarkable from a plant propagation point-of-view because a large and concentrated horticultural area — some 2000 acres on a small island — took a great leap into the propagating business; because there was little experience in any aspect of this particular field there were many unexpected problems. In any event, out of over 30 nurserymen initially interested, less than 10 remain in business. However, one of the benefits of this lack of experience was an open mind — uncluttered by previous conceptions. We were fortunate in having a large equipment industry backing up the existing tomato and flower crops, and so the open mind the technical expertise got together and produced some most interesting and advanced propagation units. These units only worked when they had been evolved with the closest co-operation of someone experienced in propagating the particular plants concerned.

I shall describe the technical side of three propagating units that were


Author: S.J.F. Maxfield

PP: 177

In 1956–57 R.J. Downs, H.A. Borthwick, B. Waxman and J.P. Nitsch carried out experiments on the effects of photoperiodic stimuli on trees. Various things were discovered including the fact that oaks (the species they used was Quercus rubra) responded to continous daylength and, as a result of their treatments, grew to 8 ft. in one year.

In 1974 I tried a rough experiment using four different species, namely Quercus rubra, Q. robur, Q. cerris and Q. ilex to discover whether there was any application of these results for the commercial grower. I used reasonable quantities of each species, to wit: 1,750 Q. rubra, 1,500 Q. robur, 1000 Q. cerris and 750 Q. ilex. In all cases 1 year seedlings were used potted into 7" ×9" polypots in a soilless compost. There was no control. The lighting used was 40 watt tungsten filament bulbs 3 ft. apart suspended 3 ft. above the crop. They were placed in an ‘old’ cold greenhouse which had a polythene skin inserted inside to make it waterproof.

After growth


Author: H. Jackson

PP: 179

In the present uncertain financial situation the emphasis is on economy in the nursery. If thought and time are given, machines can be adapted and produced not only to ease the job in hand but also to enable the product to be re-used. This is relevant with soil sterilisation as polythene used in sealing the soil can be re-rolled and re-used, so reducing the cost per acre quite substantially.

For the sterilisation of the soil Basamid is used. This product is supplied in prill form and I have used two methods of application:

  1. A Sisis Lospred fertilizer spreader fitted on the rear of the tractor which applies the material at the correct rate.
  2. Horstine Farmery applicator fitted to the front of the tractor. This can be hydraulically controlled if required, but in our case it is in a fixed position.

The advantage of the second system is that only one tractor is required, as a rotovator may be fitted to the rear of the tractor enabling the chemical to be incorporated into the soil.


Author: B.E. Humphrey

PP: 181

The significant role of labour costs in the propagating unit are discussed, and the main demands on labour are identified. The scope of the materials handling problem in the unit are then investigated. Equipment and equipment design factors are then described for: (a) permanent or semi-permanent structures, (b) handling machinery, and (c) handling smaller units. Existing layouts and their particular problems are described and, finally, general guidelines for the design of new units are laid down.

Author: Nina Bassuk

PP: 186

A requirement in the study of vegetative propagation is a research technique which will facilitate the detection of internal root promoting or inhibiting factors within the plants being propagated. Bioassay techniques are appropriate because their function is to detect growth factors by measuring responses induced in biological material. A bioassay for rooting substances is one in which an extract from the plant under test is applied to cuttings whose adventitious root development is measured as the response to the extract.

Went (5) published the first description of a bioassay for rooting factors using etiolated pea seedlings while Hemberg (1) and Luckwill (4) described bioassays using cuttings of dwarf bean seedlings. Hess (2) used the mung bean, Phoseolus aureus, as his test object and subsequently modified the technique (3). Seedlings are grown for 9 to 10 days in a controlled environment and then cuttings are prepared with 3 cm of hypocotyl, epicotyl, primary leaves and


Author: Nicholas J. Cheffins

PP: 190

Hardwood cutting technique. The hardwood cutting technique, as developed at East Malling Research Station, essentially consists of rooting leafless shoot cuttings by applying a synthetic auxin to their bases and placing them in covered bins containing a peat-grit compost where their bases are warmed by heating cables (3). After rooting, the cuttings are transferred to the nursery where shoot growth commences in the following spring: they are dependent on stored carbohydrates until the new leaves produce carbohydrates surplus to their own requirements. If the cuttings do not have adequate carbohydrate reserves to carry them over until this occurs they will die. Experiments investigating this aspect are discussed in this paper.

Problems of clonal and season rooting difference. A period of 4 weeks in heated bins with a basal temperature of 21°C has been recommended to obtain rooting in apple hardwood cuttings (5), but not all rootstocks root with equal facility (3), and rooting may


Author: J.I. Cooper

PP: 194

Using example drawn from published and my own unpublished data I will describe what viruses do to hardy nursery stock and how their effects may be minimised.

Although gardeners have known for more than 200 years that variegation in Jasminum (Fig. 1) probably results from virus infection, Cane showed in 1720 (3) that the condition was graft transmissible, the subject of plant virology is new to many people. I have therefore prefaced my discussion with some background information on the properties of viruses.


Author: Lawrence L. Carville

PP: 39

Traditionally, Acer palmatum cultivars in the Northeast have always been propagated from dormat hardwood grafting. This method has assured the grower of successful stands of grafts which can be planted out in the spring and which will be winter hardy during the first season outside the greenhouse. The increasing scarcity of Acer palmatum seedlings for understocks and the rapidly escalating labor costs have prompted some growers to search for less expensive and more expeditious means of propagating Acer palmatum cultivars. A review of the literature within the IPPS indicates that growers have been experimenting with both softwood and hardwood cuttings of Japanese maples (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). Unit costs have always favored cuttings over graftage but many of the problems related to cuttings production have discouraged the commercial grower. I have achieved good results with softwood cutting production of Acer palmatum ‘Atropurpureum Bloodgood’1 but the problems incidental to taking and

Author: David Miller

PP: 206

Atrinal is a new plant growth regulator manufactured by Dr. R. Maag, A.G. Dielsdorf, Switzerland. Atrinal has demonstrated growth regulatory activity on many ornamentals, shrubs and top fruits. The compound is taken up through both leaves and roots, but foliar applications have provided the best results. Interesting responses include not only growth retardation, but also chemical pinching, induction of side-branching, improved rooting, fruit colouring, ripening and abscission, as well as yield increase depending on plant species involved.

Although Atrinal has demonstrated activity on a wide range of plants, in this paper the discussion is mainly restricted to its use as a plant growth regulator for the chemical pinching of azaleas, particularly the florist’s azalea, Indicum hybrid cultivars, cultivars of White Water hybrids and Japanese evergreen azaleas.

The manufacturers claim the following characteristics and uses for Atrinal:

It is a new plant growth regulator with systemic activity for


Author: Robert J. Garner

PP: 210

The provision of support for plants in the nursery is a costly and time-consuming process. An examination of present practices may suggest ways of saving work without a significant reduction in quality. With this in mind a survey of some of the principal features leading to establishment of particular forms of growth has been made.

Botanists and foresters have long been concerned with growth and form and their many publications, particularly in the present century, provide an immense amount of information from which only those findings considered relevant to nursery work will be mentioned here.


Author: Paul Biggin

PP: 215

The Forestry Commission’s annual programme of plant production is fifty million plants. To improve on the techniques used research is carried out at the Northern Research Station at Roslin on Bush Estate, near Edinburgh. Facilities for research include research nursery at Bush, also two others at Gatehouse of Fleet, and Newton near Elgin. A polythene house is used for research on containers, also another at Fort Augustus. The Physiology Section does research on cutting propagation and has glass and polythene house facilities.

Research started first into seedbed technique, pre-war, and later into nutrition and weed control. The basic techniques are described in Forestry Commission Bulletin 43, "Nursery Practice" and Bulletin 37, "Nursery Nutrition".

Plant production falls into categories. Bare-rooted stock take up the bulk of the programme. Container plants, such as tubed seedlings, are used for special purposes such as in North Scotland where 500,000 are produced annually.


Author: R.C.B. Johnstone

PP: 217

At present the majority of plants produced for use in Forestry Commission forests are produced as bare-rooted planting stock. This is a cheap and relatively efficient system. However, there is wastage and while this is perhaps acceptable when the initial value of the product is low it is not so acceptable when the product being used has a high basic value. Thus when we are considering the use of genetically superior seed we must consider systems which have a higher guarantee of success, i.e. where virtually every seed produces plantable plant.

In addition, situations arise where it is desirable to have a particular size of plant, e.g. on very weedy sites where the cost of producing a large plant would be less than subsequent weeding costs. Or on sites where, for example, initial survival is a problem and it may be more beneficial to have summer planting. In addition, as nursery costs increase so there is a demand to reduce the time a plant spends in the nursery. Under these


Author: K.A. Longman

PP: 219

Several research groups at this station are investigating aspects of tree and forest science from a broad spectrum of interests and approaches, especially in physiology, ecology, genetics and microbiology. The same themes recur: how trees grow and develop, how their responses differ, and how one tree affects another. It is expected that this knowledge will be used to improve and innovate in forestry, and aid the cultivation of ornamental and amenity trees. To a large extent this research is complementary to that of the Forestry Commission Research Division, whose work is particularly related to practical problems associated with commercial forestry species. Fruit tree research in Britain is mainly concentrated at the Long Ashton and East Malling Research Stations.

Compared with herbaceous crop and ornamental plants, much less is known about forest and amenity trees, and new hybrids and cultivars appear infrequently or not at all. Whereas spectacular changes and improvements have


Author: Natalie Peate

PP: 238

The Australian flora consists of some 12,000 to 15,000 species in approximately 850 genera. Of these, probably half have horticultural potential. This vast range of species from which we have opportunity to draw is the envy of horticulturalists the world over. We should pause and consider the success of our endeavors in pursuing the selection, introduction, and improvement of cultivars for ornamental planting.

Cultivars of fruit trees, roses, azaleas, camellias, and a great many other commonly grown exotic plants have been either developed by breeding or gathered as mutations over many centuries and are great improvements over their ancestors. The search for hardier, more floriferous and attractive forms and the development of techniques that allow the propagator to faithfully reproduce these, represents the history of horticulture.

In the case of Australian plants, we have had a comparatively brief time to collect, select and introduce our flora. However, native plant enthusiasts


Author: Ross James

PP: 242

Lighting for specific results in plant propagation is an infant science awaiting our attention. The aim of this paper is to present a summary of available data together with my own thoughts. It is by no means exhaustive, serving only as an introduction to a fascinating aspect of plant propagation.

Consider these thoughts and their impact: Light — the most powerful environmental force; the omnipotent plant growth regulator; light is energy; light is essential for photosynthesis.

Light effectively regulates the rate and type of plant growth by determining the speed of energy assimilation through photosynthesis. Simply — NO light = NO photosynthesis = NO growth.

Visible light consists of a mixture of red, yellow, green and blue lights covering the range of wavelengths from 350 to 780 nanometers (nm). The two zones of most significance to plants are the blue zone (350–550 nm) and the red zone (550–780 nm). Photosynthesis is influenced by both zones but, in addition, the blue zone


Author: Colin J. Wilson

PP: 246

Methods that have been successfully used to graft West Australian Banksia to East Australian Banksia rootstocks are described. Results of trials carried out at different times of the year using different stock/scion species combinations are given. The behaviour of the different stocks and direction in which further work is proceeding is indicated.

Author: K.P. Richmond

PP: 253

Australian Paper Manufacturers Limited requires both pine and eucalypt for pulp production. The eucalypt pulpwood mainly comes from forest residues following sawlog extraction and from sawmill chips obtained from natural stands in State Forests while pine pulpwood is obtained from Company plantations on a continuing basis of thinning, clear cutting and replanting.

We have been actively engaged in the reforestation of abandoned farmland in Gippsland since 1950. During this 25 year period, 41,000 ha. have been established, requiring some 75 million pine seedlings and 7½ million eucalyptus seedlings.

The two main species used for this programme have been Pinus radiata (D.Don) on the marginal or low rainfall sites, and Eucalyptus regnans (F. Muell.) in the Strzelecki Ranges where rainfall is higher. Planting sites are prepared at considerable cost so it is imperative that the site be fully utilized with high quality seedling stock.

To ensure successful establishment, a high seedling


Author: William J. Greenhalgh

PP: 259

Research and development activities involving plant hormones contribute significantly to the information explosion. This seems to be especially true of horticultural crops where even minor manipulations of the natural sequence of growth and development produce substantial benefits either aesthetically or commercially.

Sifting through the rubble of this explosion of information, one can observe some pattern emerging to indicate that mans’ knowledge (i.e. organized information) and mans’ wisdom (i.e. his use of that knowledge) are making slow but steady progress. Plant physiologists classify the active agents into: (a) auxins, (b) gibberellins, (c) cytokinins, (d) inhibitors, and (e) ethylene.

In terms of their application to agricultural production, Weaver devotes separate chapters to: (a) rooting and propagation, (b) dormancy, (c) flowering, (d) fruit set and development, (e) senescence (f) abscission, (g) size control and related phenomena, and (h) weed control. Clearly the matrix of


Author: Curtis J. Alley

PP: 48

Field budding of grapevines onto nematode and phylloxera resistant rootstocks was the most common method of establishing vineyards (in the non-irrigated areas) in the coastal counties of California in the past (4). This was done in midsummer, preferably in August, and completed prior to harvest. The three limiting factors to the success of this method were: (a) the availability of mature budwood in early August; (b) having the rootstock in an actively-growing condition at budding time and (c) having at least 6 weeks of warm weather after budding to satisfactorily "callusin" the bud.

Prior to development of certified grapevines (1, 2) mature budwood could easily be obtained from the non-irrigated hillside vineyards where the vines matured their wood early. The newer vineyards using certified stock were made in the flat, deep fertile soils in valleys where irrigation was available. Under these conditions it was not possible to obtain mature budwood from these vineyards for


Author: Jonathan Sutton

PP: 262

In recent years plant tissue culture has experienced a boom period both in research and commerce. Research workers around the world continue to find new applications of the technique with the result that some areas of research have progressed rapidly. Industry in turn has been quick to adopt tissue culture techniques where improved production can be realised.

In this paper some of the more recent advances will be discussed. Also, because enquiries have been received from growers interested in using tissue culture in their own operation, some basic requirements for starting such work will be outlined.

When we talk of plant tissue culture we are usually referring to any kind of plant tissue growing on a sterile nutrient solution under aseptic conditions.

Depending on the aim of the exercise, the growing tissue may subsequently differentiate into recognisable plant organs such as roots, shoots, petioles and leaves, or it may continue to produce a mass of undifferentiated callus tissue


Author: Henry C. Jackson

PP: 269

African violets are fast becoming a favourite house plant in Australia. I have been growing them at "Idaho" Nurseries since 1957. The only cultivars that were available at that time were a single blue named "Blue Boy," a single pink (unnamed) and a double pink called "Bud’s Pink Waltz." I grew these cultivars until 1961. Then the late Dr. Sydney Crawcour went to America and contacted several growers. On his return I started to import named cultivars and over the next few years I imported some 300 cultivars.

Propagation. African violets can be propagated by three methods, i.e. seed, division, and leaf cuttings. The quickest and most successful way to reproduce named cultivars is by leaf cutting. If you are growing named cultivars much time can be saved when making up orders by arranging them in alphabetical order, starting with propagation and following on into potting. By this method several dozen plants can be picked out in a short time.

Leaf cuttings are taken all year round from


Author: Peter E. Albery

PP: 272

Interest in using sawdust and other timber residues such as shavings and bark as a potting medium has recently come to the fore in Australia. This interest, no doubt, has been fostered by the expense of imported peat moss and shortages of Australian sedge peats. Growers have also noted that overseas nurserymen have used these wood materials with success. For several years wood materials have been used in a limited way by a few Australian nurseries. I first saw terrestrial plants growing in a mixture of partly decomposed sawdust and spent tan-bark in the early 1950’s. Nevertheless, fresh Eucalyptus sawdust has only recently become very popular as an organic constituent for container growing.

Physical Properties. Baker (1) explained that sawdust is one of the best organic constituents that may be used in a growing medium. Its outstanding properties are as follows:

  1. Readily available in a uniform grade.
  2. Chemically uniform.
  3. Stable to fumigation.
  4. Easily made into a uniform mix.

Author: Nelson R. Wilson

PP: 275

The production of street trees from seed or cuttings in the past has been a slow and haphazard process with very indifferent results being obtained.

Seed from trees such as Ulmus procera (U. campestris) gives such a wide variation in type that as many as 50% of seedlings need to be discarded. The other major problem is to grow the seedlings to an acceptable street tree height, i.e., 12 to 15 feet with a nice smooth trunk of 4 to 5 inches caliper. Usually Ulmus procera seedlings require 8 to 10 years or longer to reach this size and, even after initial culling, the finished products generally require further culling.

One method that we used to great advantage to overcome these problems and obtain 100% straight trunked trees of 12 to 15 feet in 3 to 5 years is by budding or grafting.

Selected cuttings of Ulmus procera are planted in the open ground, lifted after one year, trimmed and replanted out in nursery rows 9 inches apart with 3½ feet between rows.

Budwood from selected parent


Author: Edward C.M. Lee, R.A. De Fossard

PP: 277

Aseptic strawberry plants were obtained by culturing axillary buds from stolon scale leaves on medium-MLLM (3). When the basal stem region of these aseptic plants was cultured on medium-MMMM (3) in the light, numerous buds developed, each of which formed into a complete plant; repeated culture of the basal region of each plant thus formed constitutes a rapid method of clonal propagation, with a potential in one year of millions of plants from each original plant.

When the basal region of aseptic plants was cultured on medium-MMMM in the dark, callus was formed along with several etiolated shoots. Apical meristems from these etiolated shoots were much easier to excise than from field-grown plants. A programme for using a combination of meristem culture and heat treatment of buds and plants in culture tubes, is described for the production of virus-free material from virus-infected strains of strawberry.

Other methods for obtaining aseptic strawberry plants using tissue culture techniques are also described, including the regeneration of plants from callus derived from anthers. This is thought to be the first report of organogenesis from unorganized strawberry callus.


Author: R.F. Martyr

PP: 286

After less than one month’s residence in a new continent, I am very conscious of being at the stage when one should keep one’s eyes and ears open but one’s mouth shut. My invitation to spend 6 months at the Queensland Agricultural College came through the initiative and with the assistance of the Queensland Nurserymen’s Association. It was brought about by the concern of professional horticulturists who felt the absence of educational and training opportunities in ornamental and amenity horticulture; that neither the industry nor the profession were getting enough people of the calibre they needed which, in turn, was affecting the whole status of the horticulturist. In other words, they were missing out on the excellent facilities which exist in technical and technological education which appeared to be available to every other section of the environmental disciplines except ornamental horticulture.

When Professor Oliver Batcheller from california Polytechnic University came to


Author: G.J. Whitehorne, D.K. McIntyre

PP: 291

It is probably necessary to outline a few basic concepts about seed germination and seed dormancy before discussing in more detail the breaking of seed dormancy.

Germination of viable non-dormant seed usually occurs when certain conditions are fulfilled. These include the imbibition of water, suitable temperature and an adequate oxygen supply.

When seeds do not respond, i.e. do not germinate when subjected to these favourable environmental conditions they are commonly called dormant.

Seed dormancy can be divided into two basic categories.

  1. Physical dormancy
  2. Chemical dormancy

Physical dormancy. These seeds have coats which are physically impermeable to water. When this seed coat is abraded, nicked, cracked or removed, the embryo imbibes water and germination occurs quickly; e.g. Acacia spp. and members of Papilionaceace (Pea family).

Chemical dormancy. When the normal criteria of moisture, temperature and oxygen have been fulfilled, and any physical barrier to water imbibition


Author: Ian S. Tolley

PP: 294

I am often asked, "Couldn’t we plant the seeds from that nice fruit we have just eaten and grow a tree in our garden just like that."

Two of the important aspects making this impracticable are time and thorniness. In the first place, seedling trees take considerably longer to produce fruit than budded trees do. Secondly almost all citrus cultivars grown from seed show a high degree of juvenile vigour which is accompanied by a high degree of thorniness.

Twenty years ago I got "hooked" on the technicalities of citrus production and particularly in citrus nursery propagation. It didn’t take long to discover a vast amount of fascinating information in word and picture in "The Citrus Industry," by Reuther, Batchelor and Webber (1). One of the interesting snippets I remembered was, "the physiological change which causes the decrease of seedling thorniness, therefore, can not depend solely on the age of the tree or clone from seed: it seems to be favoured rather by repeated cell division,


Author: Ruth F. Elliott

PP: 298

The beauty of tree ferns and the ease with which they will grow make them very desirable garden plants.

At present, most commercial plants are being collected from the wild but it would be better if tree ferns could be grown from spores.

Several species are sold commercially. They are all attractive, but vary in their ability to withstand exposure. The black tree fern or mamaku (Cyathea medullaris Swartz) is usually considered to be the best species for cultivation, and so most of my studies have been with this species. Other species that I have used are Dicksonia squarrosa Swartz and D. fibrosa Col. By using sterile culture techniques, I have been able to find out some of the requirements for "normal" growth of tree fern spores into new fern plants.

Collecting spores. The spores of tree ferns are found in sporangia grouped together in sori found on the back of older fronds. The sori open when mature, shedding sporangia which, in turn, split and release the spores.

To collect spores, I


Author: Glenn A. Dye

PP: 302

Although Terrazole soil fungicide is a relatively new chemical to us here in New Zealand, having only been registered since November 1974, development and research work has been going on in the United States and other overseas countries since the early 1960’s.

The early registrations of Terrazole in New Zealand were for use on turf and ornamentals but recently registration has been granted, extending the area for use into vegetable seedlings.

Chemical and Physical Properties: Terrazole is a soil fungicide used for prevention and control of diseases caused by pythium and phytophthora, commonly called water moulds. It is both fungicidal and fungistatic. That is, it kills the organism as well as prevents reinfection.

Terrazole’s chemical name is 5 ethoxy-3-trichloromethyl1-1, 2, 4-thiadiazole, but don’t let that put you off as "chloroethidiazole" has been proposed as the common name and this is much more pronounceable.

The technical material is a pale yellow-brown liquid of 95%


Author: W. Joel Hall

PP: 53

Walnut Propagation. Our walnuts are started from seed, using the Northern California black (Juglans hindsii) or ‘Paradox’ hybrid (J. hindsii × J. regia). The latter is an F1 hybrid from the black walnut naturally crossing with the English walnut.

In selecting our seed we start with vigorous trees which produce seed which grows into a rootstock which is compatible and will give us a high percentage of bud "take’. This takes some time in determining these factors because our walnut production takes two years from the time seed is planted until the tree is dug in the nursery and delivered. So our "roughing out" effort of a good seed source takes some time.

We plant our seed in October, by hand, 1½ inches deep, 6 inches apart. We then cover the seeds with 6 to 8 inches of soil where they lay through the winter and stratify naturally.

The following spring, about March 1, when the seed has cracked and the root is about 4 inches long, we take the soil off the top


Author: K.L. Davey

PP: 306

1. (a) Purpose. A Nuclear Stock Unit is based on the concept of an enclosed insect-proof area where plant material can be maintained in a "virus-free" or "high-health" status, and kept true to type. "Virus-free" — usually means free of known viruses. "High-health" — free of viruses of known economic importance.

Although insect-proofing is of prime importance to the maintenance of the high level of plant helath required, strict observation of plant-hygiene is of equal importance and includes regular application of plant therapeutants for the control of pests and diseases with a special emphasis on the control of the main virus vectors, i.e. aphids, leaf hoppers and nematodes. The Unit becomes the source of nuclear plant material for research and for distribution of "Clean Stock" to growers.

(b) Establishment and Layout. The present Nuclear Stock Unit at the Horticultural Research Centre in Levin was built in 1967 and replaced a smaller temporary unit that had been in existence since 1961.It


Author: Daniel Cohen

PP: 310

Over the past 10 years or so there has been considerable interest in the prospect of using tissue culture methods in modern plant propagation practice (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10). Progress in the tissue culture field has indeed been exciting and it is now possible, with some cultivars of some species, to grow complete plants from single cells and even from protoplasts (i.e. cells from which the cell wall has been removed). Such areas are still only research tools which allow us to investigate in more detail the processes of cell growth and differentiation.

There are, however, two applications of tissue culture which have already found a place in plant propagation. Firstly, in the production of virus-free (disease-free or high-health) propagating material and, secondly, in the rapid clonal multiplication of selected plants. It is about these applications that I will speak today. I will describe some of the principles and problems involved, the work we are doing at Plant Physiology Division,


Author: E. Milton Johnson

PP: 316

Though our nursery business is small compared to many others in New Zealand, I feel that we have gained a great deal from joining the New Zealand Chapter of I.P.P.S. and it is now my endeavour to make a contribution to the Society. The following thoughts and observations are personal opinions and conclusions reached from practical experience.

The "container-grown" nursery business in New Zealand is not so many years old. I well remember when the most widely used container was the clay pot. Potting composts contained soil, along with other components ranging from turf, straw, animal manure, charcoal, scoria, leaf mould etc., as well as fertilisers such as were commonly used in the field. Often a different "recipe" was produced for each crop.

Today we require large volumes of a consistent "mix" which must be acceptable to a wide range of plant species and cultivars. I do not subscribe to the concept that a nursery should use only one mix. I fail to see any possibility of one mix being


Author: W. Featherstone

PP: 319

The landscape gardener has to present to his client a complete garden capable of a continuing and lasting process. Present plant production techniques do not always provide his requirements and I am suggesting that this is because as often as not he is not concerned with individual plants but plants in number and the design reactions between those plants. The propagator is frequently very aware of the individual specialized merits of a single species of cultivar, and becomes concerned with the plant’s propagation needs and subsequent sales requirements in isolation from its potential garden usage.

Such a narrow view taken to many individual plants results in a collection of specialised plants which the landscape gardener has to draw together within a scheme embodying the design elements of unity, scale, light and shade, texture and colour to create a process involving time and space division resulting in a particular style.

Style in New Zealand at present has been largely influenced


Author: Garry A. Wood

PP: 322

Viruses multiply within the cells of plants and may be found in all the vegetative tissues. Seed transmission, which occurs with some viruses, is the exception rather than the rule, but all vegetative parts of plants used for propagation may contain virus and give rise to infected progeny. Many cultivars of plants such as fruits trees, berry fruit, grapes, carnations, chrysanthemums, and bulbs, have become extensively infected with one or more viruses because infected parent plants have been used as a source of propagating material. Further infection has occurred by the working of healthy cultivars on to diseased rootstocks or by topworking of orchard trees.

Intensive investigations into virus diseases of pip and stone fruit trees in New Zealand commenced about 20 years ago. In early investigations, work centered around diseases which were readily apparent in the orchard such as mosaic, green crinkle and ring spot of apple, stony pit of pear, and line pattern (formally mosaic) of plum.


Author: James S. Say

PP: 325

The original concept of education by correspondence was to offer tuition to students who, for defined acceptable reasons such as distance, poor health, disability, occupation, were unable to attend an educational establishment that offered the tuition they wanted, or who were living in areas where such tuition was not available. In some countries tuition by correspondence is regarded as simply a back-up, or support function, of a college or technical institute involved with students who are taught in the classroom situation. I wish to emphasise that in the case of the New Zealand Technical Correspondence Institute, Lower Hutt, this does NOT apply.

The TCI has expanded rapidly from a four tutor team in 1946 to become the foremost correspondence organisation in the Southern Hemisphere with a current student roll over 20,000 and nearly 400 tutors.

Emergence, nearly 30 years ago, from a modest school, to the largest single teaching organisation in New Zealand has brought its share of the


Author: Ruth E. Hills

PP: 334

I spent from August, 1973, to January, 1975, Europe. My arrival was timed to coincide with the sixth annual meeting of the Region of Great Britain and Ireland, I.P.P.S., and the associated two week’s tour British and Dutch horticultural establishments (nurseries, parks, research stations and universities) by a visiting party of fellow American members. With the I.P.P.S. I toured West England and Boskoop in Holland and attended the G.B. & I. Conference. But, my horticultural experience overseas was not limited to a whirlwind camera-clicking tour. I worked in a commercial nursery in Wiltshire and then at Kew Gardens. Hence,the view, as an employee, not only seeing new ideas and methods — but using them first hand.

I would like to share with you the ideas seen on the I.P.P.S. tour and later used when employed, which I feel we can use to practical advantage in New Zealand. Some of you may already be familiar with some or all of these practices.

Sun Frames.At Hilliers & Sons, Winchester and


Author: A.J. Dakin, B.R. McClure

PP: 338

Kauri (Agathis australis) is a characteristic tree of forests in the northern part of the North Island (New Zealand) from near North Cape to latiture 38°. The genus Agathis contains about 15 species in the Pacific basin from the Philippines to Polynesia and Australia. The single New Zealand species is endemic. Much has been written about the N.Z. Kauri — of its botanical features and large dimensions, of its timber quality, and of the exploitation by man for lumber, kauri gum, and clearing of kauri forests for pastoral purposes, This had led to serious depletion fo the original virgin forest (from 1.2 million hectares to 5,800 ha.) but has left behind a legacy of natural regeneration much of which retained in reserves and state forests. Kauri is one of the few native trees which exhibit potential for management; it associates gregariously, forming almost pure stands, (under certain conditions) and is a natural colonizer of shrublands, having good seed production and seed dispersal.

Author: A.J. Dakin, E.B. Mearns

PP: 344

The Rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum) is one member of a predominantly South Pacific genus in the family Podocarpaceae. There appear to be about 20 species in the genus (1), occurring in Malaysia, Borneo, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Philippines, Tasmania, Chile and New Zealand. In N. Z. there are 7 endemic species, (1) ranging from the Rimu which attains heights up to 35 metres and rarely to 60 m, down to the Pigmy pine, D. laxifolium, often only 0.5 to 1 metre high. In terms of size the Rimu would rank as the largest tree in the genus with its closest rival the Huon pine of Tasmania, D. franklinii, which attains a height of 30 metres.

Rimu has always been an important timber species in N. Z. and the volume cut annually at present amounts to 15 to 20% of the total timber production. For over 70 years the country has enjoyed almost unlimited supplies of this versatile wood, but the trend over recent years has been towards decreasing the cut, to conserve a dwindling resource. Rimu is the most


Author: R.T. Burton

PP: 351

Exporting of plant material can be difficult and frustrating business if not carried out carefully. There are several factors making this so; for instance, exporters of plant material must meet the following requirements depending on what country the consignment is to be sent. These are:
      Arrangement of International Health Certificates
      Custom Clearance
      Delivery Schedules
      Correct point of entry into country
      Growing media
      Correct packaging
      Preparation of plants for inspection prior to despatch

From my experience in exporting plant material a high standard of plant health is essential and standardization of product is well observed. Selection of suitable stock should be arranged well in advance of despatch. Plants should be assembled and isolated from further saleable stock and marked clearly for export only. Regular examination of plants to ensure that they are free of pests and disease is essential.

Plants must be free from pests as aphids, scale, mealy bugs, caterpillars and mites. It


Author: Hudson T. Hartmann

PP: 58

In recent years there has been an increased need for smaller sized fruit trees for high density plantings in commercial orchards and for the home garden. Reduced tree size can be obtained by several methods, such as the employment of genetic dwarfs, use of growth retardant sprays, heavy pruning — particularly summer pruning, and by the use of dwarfing rootstocks. The latter may be the most satisfactory means of reducing tree size of present desirable cultivars.

A peach breeding project has been initiated at the California Agricultural Experiment Station aimed primarily at developing genetically dwarfed cultivars which will produce high quality fruits. There is also underway a screening test of a number of private plant breeder’s genetic dwarf seedling selections (6 to 8 feet tall) set at various planting distances to determine per acre production as well as fruit quality. Such breeding projects could ultimately best solve the problem of reduced tree size, particularly if a dwarfing


Author: Sid Desborough

PP: 353

Every nurseryman and plant propagator is looking for propagation methods which will be: cheaper, easier, more efficient, can utilize unskilled labour.

Potting young seedlings or rooted cuttings requires skill and dexterity which takes a long time to master. This new method fulfills all the above criteria and gives a consistently good result.

Pautti Nissula of the Forest Research in Finland used this idea for growing conifer seedlings and took out a patent. This system was further developed by the Merrist Wood Institute in the U. K. and it was from their system our nursery developed a technique for New Zealand conditions. We saw a big potential for rooting cuttings this way and this was the idea we developed.

The Method. A strip of polythene 4 metres long, 300 millimetres wide with a thickness of 50 microns is laid out on a bench 3.5 metres long and 12 mm thick with side strips of wood 300 mm apart. A 12 mm layer of rooting medium or potting compost is placed over the polythene


Author: R. Maleike, Anne B. Samples, A. D. Zaeske, G. D. Coorts

PP: 358

Hardwood bark and hardwood bark-sand mixes were evaluated as rooting media for both herbaceous and woody plants. There was no difference in rooting with 3 or 4 of the herbaceous plants with respect to medium. Chrysanthemum rooted best in the all bark and the peat-perlite mix. Of the 7 woody plants tested only Cornus florida and Ilex cornuta ‘Burfordii’ rooted better in non-harwood bark media. There was no difference due to medium with the other 5 species.

Author: Darrel A. Apps, Charles W. Heuser

PP: 362

Mass production with improved colors, and better flower forms of Hemerocallis cultivars has been limited because of slow natural increase. Many of the newer cultivars produce only 1 or 2 new fans yearly under natural conditions in temperate zone climates. Using Traub’s (12) improved propagation technique, only 20 to 30 plants can be obtained per year in greenhouse environments. Because of slow increase most of the best new cultivars remain in breeder and collector gardens and are unknown to the general gardening public. A better propagation method will increase both garden and commercial potential of this plant.

This paper discusses 1) current propagation techniques practiced by a limited number of commercial growers and breeders; 2) a new propagation method involving the application of kinetin compounds to freshly cut crowns; and 3) propagation by tissue culture.


Author: P. L. Neel

PP: 368

According to the U.S. census of agriculture, the 8 southeastern states in the U.S. (Ala., Ark., Fla., Ga., Ky., Miss., Tenn., and Va.) sold nearly $47 million worth of nursery products in 1969. The value of these sales for the 8 states rose some 458% between 1949 and 1969 (5). These data, as reported, are considerably less than the actual values for the whole ornamentals industry because the census did not cover all the firms engaged in the nursery business, such as turf, foliage, plants and flowers. A more recent report (4) indicates that the value of woody ornamentals sold in Florida during 1974 amounted to about $38 million. During the same year, the Florida flower industry sold some $66 million worth of products, the Florida foliage industry some $65 million, and the turf industry some $30 million, for a combined total of $199 million for the total ornamentals industry in Florida in 1974.

The ornamentals industry has been one of the fastest expanding segments of agriculture in


Author: Elton M. Smith

PP: 374

The results of three separate studies indicate that pronamide (Kerb) and glyphosate (Roundup) will control quackgrass. Pronamide can be used as an overspray on existing quackgrass in established nursery stock. Glyphosate, when labelled, will have a role in controlling quackgrass prior to planting and as a directed spray under trees and large nursery stock.

Author: Edward J. Bunker

PP: 377

Linnaeus said "Man dwells naturally within the tropics and lives on the fruit of the palm tree. He exists in other parts of the world and there makes shift to feed on corn and flesh." I am sure in everyone’s mind a picture of the tropics conjures up palm trees swaying in the balmy breeze.

In the realm of economically important plants, palms stand second to grain-yielding grasses. The world’s first sealed milk bottle — the coconut palm; it also gives us copra and coir for mats and roofing of homes. Dates — the staff of life; we have palm cabbage; arrack — a potent alcoholic drink; leaves for thatch and brooms, cabinet wood and veneers. Fruit, such as bactris, the peach palm, are very nutritious; sago palm; betel nuts chewed by over 400,000,000 people; palm oils — and the list goes on and on. In Southeast Asia, Borassus flabellifer has over 800 uses to the native people there.

In our western civilization the palm has become important for its decorative and durable capabilities. It is


Author: Marcus A. Petersen

PP: 379

Our nursery is 11 miles from the heart of Brisbane in a suburban area, which has a population of just under a million people. The Tropic of Capricorn passes through our state about 400 miles to the north of us, so that puts us in the sub-tropics.

The nursery industry in Australia services a population of 14,000,000 people spread over 3,000,000 square miles, while in the U.S. there is over 200,000,000 people in approximately the same area. Consequently, nurseries in our part of the world tend to be smaller in size. However, size isn’t a criteria of efficiency and quality of production; we have some very efficient nurseries producing excellent quality plants. Modern up-to-date methods are used and many of our growers keep up with the latest developments from overseas which can be incorporated into their programme.

In my nursery we grow a variety of different things including bedding plants, ornamentals and house plants. I will endeavour to explain a little of how we produce and


Author: Marianne Macmillan

PP: 381

The alpine eucalypts consist of less than 10 species in all, there being many variations of the main species Eucalyptus pauciflora (white sallee or cabbage gum). The variations or sub-species are recognized under their own names as with Eucalyptus niphophila (snow gum), E. de beuzvillei (giant snow gum) and E. gregsoniana (Wolgan snow gum). These small mallee-like trees or shrubs are excellent as ornamental specimens. They have creamy flowers but their most attractive features are their irregular stems with white and red bark and glaucous leaves. As the light intensifies in higher altitudes the eucalypts have adapted by producing a waxy glaucous leaf surface to give them the advantage of the maximum photosynthesis required yet protection from light reflectance in exposed alpine environment.

Author: Natalie F. Peate

PP: 384

In Australia, the genus Eucalyptus covers some 500 species many of which are suitable for ornamental planting. Some features considered in selecting ornamental species are suitability for conditions in the area of planting, habit, foliage, bark, flowers and sometimes fruit.

Eucalypts fall into two main groups; shrubs and trees. The shrubby species, ranging from about 4 to 20 ft in height, frequently have enlarged rootstocks, called lignotubers, from which several stems usually grow. These eucalypts are known as mallees and comprise the highest proportion of the most floriferous and beautiful species in the genus. Other shrubs and trees have either poorly developed or no lignotubers and are generally single trunked. Many of these are also highly ornamental.

A high proportion of ornamental eucalypts come from a small area in western Australia known as the "Goldfields Area." A brief description of ten of these species has been tabulated below with information taken from "Eucalypts of


Author: Ian D. Raward

PP: 386

Because of our climatic conditions in southeast Queensland, we find that glasshouse grown container stock is superior to open ground cultivation. Our average summer temperature range from 65° to 85°F and winter 45° to 70°F. We can maintain a mininum of 65°F night temperature during the winter months, which permits year-round propagation, and we can have closer control of pests and diseases. The main pests are mealy bug and red spider. We root tip cuttings from 12 mon old well-coloured stock. At peak propagation times we also use younger stock. Tip cuttings are used in preference to node cuttings as these provide a good quality plant quickly.

The removal of the tip of 3–4 leaves causes the next 3 or 4 nodes to break out on the stock plant. These then provide us with our next tip cuttings, yielding not 1, but 3 or 4 tip cuttings in approximately 6 weeks. On an average we can produce 60–80 tip cuttings per plant in a 12 mon period depending on growth habit of the cultivar.

Our propagation


Author: Karl W. Opitz, James Beutel

PP: 63

The kiwi or Chinese gooseberry, Actinidia chinensis(Planch) may be propagated by various means (1). Budding or grafting desired cultivars on seedling rootstocks is the most usual practice. Owing to rootstock variability and the longer time required to obtain planting stocks, several propagators desire to grow kiwis from stem cuttings. As with most trees and vines, seedling variation makes necessary vegetative propagation using selected scion cultivars. Suitable ones are available for topworking or for cuttings.

Seed extraction. Soft, mature fruits yield large numbers of viable seed. The simplest way to handle seed fruit is to store it soft ripe at about 4.0°C until the seed is to be planted. The fruit is then peeled and the pulp liquefied in an electric food blender. This pulp may be evenly spread on the planting medium without further treatment or the seed sieved, dried and returned to storage in a plastic bag.

Seed germination. Seed planted directly after extraction germinates


Author: Alex Scott

PP: 387

Birkdale is a small country township about 16 miles southeast of Brisbane. It is nestled in the heart of a farming area commonly called the "Salad Bowl." We have 3½ acres of production nursery and 1½ acres of landscaped display gardens, rainforest, etc. Our main lines are shrubs and trees of an exotic and indigenous nature. Within this range we specialize in azaleas, native shrubs, trees and hibiscus.

Hibiscus is a line that we grow particularly well and have built up a trade supplying something like 50,000 a year in smaller container from a 2" tube to a 4" liner. We consign to all states in Australia. There is a particularly strong demand for the Hawaiian strain of hibiscus. For those who do not know hibiscus, this particular strain has been produced by using a species in the development program which produce extremely large flowers in some very unusual shades and colours. An example would be one called ‘Surf Rider’ and another called ‘Golden Belle’ which I believe would be grown in


Author: D.K. McIntyre

PP: 389

The Canberra Botanic Gardens occupy about 100 acres on the northeastern slopes of Black Mountain, less than 1 mile from the centre of Canberra. Canberra has an annual rainfall of 25" distributed fairly evenly through the year, although during some summers as little as 2" of rain has fallen in 3 months. The temperature range in the past 10 years has been from 109° maximum to 4.5°F minimum. Frosts occur regularly from May to September but snow rarely falls. Relative humidity is low, often as low as 15%. It is easy to see that these conditions are not those conductive to the growth of rainforest species, particularly as it is the extremes of climate which usually determines whether a plant can be grown in an area.

Only Australian plants are grown and we hope to have a complete living collection of the Australian flora, which has some 20,000 species. At the moment there are more than 5,000 species in cultivation and about 100,000 plants in the gardens. There are a large number of tropical


Author: Leonard Dellow

PP: 390

The inflorescense of these species is made up of the spathe and the spadix. Most cultivars are bisexual or dioecious and hence the spadix contains both pollen-producing and ovular sections. The male, pollen producing part of the spadix, is at the top end usually about 1/3 of the total, and the female or ovular section is partially protected in a cup at the base of the spadix. A third part, the function of which I am not sure, but appears to be to keep the male and female sections apart, is in the centre of the spadix and occupies a little more than a third of the total length.

In most cultivars, the flower opens fully in late evening, but does not release pollen or become receptive until later, (this time difference varies considerably). The female section next becomes receptive and this is indicated by the emission of a strong perfume and a pronounced rise in the temperature of the sapdix. Within a very short period the spathe then begins to close around the ovular section, before


Author: Adrian G. Bowden

PP: 391

The method we use is division of mature clumps but there are a few points to bear in mind. First, we plant the new divisions and they are left undisturbed for two seasons. New plantings and divisions are made in late spring as the weather begins to warm up a bit. We prefer this time to winter as the new plants start to grow without delay. The method of division is to cut each clump into single pieces using an axe, discarding flowering pieces which do not regrow.

Do not cut the leaves back on new divisions. The new plants are staked in the field to stop movement until established and fed at planting time. They usually lose quite a few leaves before growing away from the centre but after being cleaned up, after about 3 months they look quite reasonable.

When planting into containers we have saleable plants within about 6 mon and have found they too need staking if put straight outside but this can be avoided if they are placed in a shadehouse out of the wind. We are currently


Author: Luke S. Albert

PP: 392

General functions of roots are examined and it is concluded the main function of healthy roots of growing plants is a propensity to grow and form branch roots. External and internal factors affecting root growth are briefly reviewed. An important aspect of root growth is a marked sensitivity to the essential micronutrient element boron. A relationship is drawn between the behavior of boron-deficient tomato and squash roots and the initiation and growth of roots on stem cuttings.

Author: John J. McGuire, Judith Y. Flock

PP: 400

Talc formulations of indolebutyric acid plus benzimidazole or benomyl applied as a basal dip have resulted in improved rooting of woody cuttings. Results are not always consistent with all cultivars nor at all seasons with one cultivar and may be affected by changes in endogenous levels of the cytokinin — auxin ratio.

Author: H.B. Tukey Jr.

PP: 403

Rain and mist have many effects upon plants other than providing water, including leaching of important metabolites, and influencing patterns of rooting, development of fall color, dormancy, flowering, and plant interactions. Changes in growth observed in cuttings propagated under intermittent mist are also observed in plants grown commercially with overhead irrigation and in areas of high rainfall. Rain and mist are significant factors in plant growth.

Author: Richard B. Sterrett, T. Davis Sydnor

PP: 408

A ground cover sod was produced experimentally in 12 to 16 weeks using Euonymus fortunei var. colorata Rehd., purple wintercreeper, or euonymus; Hedera helix L. English ivy; and Pachysandra terminalis Sieb. and Zucc. pachysandra. Of the 7 media examined, pine bark mulch, peat moss and perlite, and Metro Mix 3003 produced the most satisfactory sods. Both euonymus and English ivy became established with a minimum of effort. Costs to produce and install ground cover sod was approximately twice as high as the conventional method. High initial costs were at least partially compensated for by lower maintenance costs during the first year.

Author: Michael A. Cohen

PP: 413

Studies were conducted during 1974 and 1975 to determine the influence of chemical growth regulators for increasing bud development in dwarf shoots of Pinus strobus and also to determine effect of rooting of dwarf shoots as influenced by clonal response and sampling date. Results indicate that both single and multiplication of N6-BA (N6-benzyladenine) increased bud development, while PBA (Pyranybenzyladenine), Atrinal (kidegulac-sodium) and MBR 12325 showed no effect. Rate of application of N6-BA was significant with 1000 ppm being more effective than 500 ppm. Results on rooting of dwarf shoots indicate that no differences in percent rooting of dwarf shoots could be attributed to sampling date, but substantial variation occurred between individual clones.

Author: H.S. Bhella

PP: 420

Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga meziesii (Mirb.) Franco, is the major softwood timber species in the United States. Although it covers only 7.3% of the commercial forest land in this country, it produces 23.8% of the saw timber (11). Douglas fir is distributed over a north–south range of more than 3,000 miles, e.g., from northern British Columbia to Mexico, and from Colorado and Arizona to the West Coast, occurring from sea level to elevations of 11,000 ft. (11,12). Its wide distribution and uses for heavy structural timber, construction lumber, poles, plywood, pulp, as well as an important ornamental and Christmas tree species has encouraged research aimed at finding improved methods for its production.

Because of the heterozygosity problem involved with seed propagation, there is an immediate need in forest genetics and management research for methods of propagating vegetatively clonal lines of superior phenotypes and genotypes of douglas fir on their own roots. These superior clonal lines


Author: Robert M. Boddy

PP: 68

Successful vegetative propagation of Mahonia aquifolium ‘Compacta’ depends a great deal upon favorable natural conditions. In Mendocino County, in the Fort Bragg area of the coast of northern California, we apparently have conditions ideally suited for this work. Soil conditions are acid; water is acid; summer temperatures are mild, rarely exceeding 70 degrees, and the annual rainfall is between 40 and 70 inches. These conditions allow cutting wood from field-grown stock plants to "cure" properly, and in the late summer we are able to place our cutting flats under intermittent watering. Ideally, this should be done in late summer we are able to place our cutting flats under intermittent watering. Ideally, this should be done in late September, though we have made cuttings of M.a. ‘Compacta’ as late as November. The percentage of our rooting varies from 30 to nearly 90, depending more upon mechanical vagaries than upon the ability of the plant to

Author: Henry A. Weller

PP: 425

The introduction of virus-indexed registered red, black, and purple raspberry and virus-indexed registered grape production was created because of a very definite need to improve a decreasing quality level, a quality level concerning both vegetative growth and fruiting. Our red raspberry virus-indexed registered program got underway in 1964.

The procedures are all rather basic; red and black raspberries both wild and cultivated, are very susceptible to a number of viruses. Some viruses are present in plants without producing visible symptoms and in this case, can only be detected by transmitting them to sensitive indicator plants. The cultivar, Henry, is commonly used as a test plant. Viruses are very detrimental to cultivated stock. From a point of economics we are concerned with four diseases; raspberry mosaic, leaf curl, streak, and crumbly berry.

Viral symptoms affect new cane growth in early summer when temperatures are still low. Foliage becomes mottled with light


Author: Hugh Steavenson

PP: 429

I can think of no more challenging or appropriate subject for debate and consideration at this particular time nor is there any group, with an even admixture of the teaching and research profession, the student body and the commercial practitioner, so uniquely qualified to explore the proposition.

As regards the student body, we face both a challenge and a crisis. The faculty members know far better than I that horticultural teaching institutions across the country are bursting at the seams with students. In our own state the horticultural enrollment at the University of Missouri has ballooned from 65 some 5 years ago to 330 at present. Our youngest panel member just 2 years out of college, has seen horticultural enrollment in his alma mater double and re-double since he matriculated. At Oregon State University, to pick a western institution, the 1970 horticultural enrollment was 60 students; the 1975 figure is 220. In almost every instance, I am told, the big jump has not been in


Author: Paul L. Smeal

PP: 431

Over 10 years ago, following the IPPS meetings, members of this group, university personnel, and representatives from the American Association of Nurserymen met to discuss how to get more young people interested in ornamental horticulture and the type of programs that should be offered. Since that time, there has been tremendous interest in ornamental horticulture from youth and adults. The interest has grown in the secondary schools with particular interest in the high school vocational agricultural programs; the vocational-technical schools; the two-year community colleges; the two year program at the four-year institutions; the four-year colleges and universities; and with adult education.

To answer the question given to this panel, "Horticultural Education — Does It Fall Short of the Mark?", I emphatically can answer NO. We may not be "dead center" in the bullseye, but we are on the target.

Those responsible for providing horticultural education have responded to the demand


Author: Gary Long

PP: 433

Four months ago when I agreed to be on this panel it seemed like a rather simple task; after all I have been involved in education in some way or other for most of my life. During the past 4 years of working with commercial nurserymen I have developed some insight into the problems nurserymen face in trying to hire qualified personnel. After 4 months of research and thinking about the subject, I wonder how I could have been so naive about the problems of education in general and horticultural education in particular.

One of the first things that I concluded from this study is that the problems of horticultural education cannot be separated from the problems of education in general. College professors complain that many of the students are coming to college unprepared for college level work. Secondary school teachers have similar complaints. Many of the problems seem to go back to primary school and beyond.

Teachers at all levels reported problems of discipline and increased


Author: Kent Tallman

PP: 435

Having completed 4 years of college and 2 years working experience, I feel that the best education is a combination of classroom instruction and practical experience. Also, good textbooks are needed for outside study.

As to the question of whether horticultural education is up to the mark, I have varied feelings. Number one, I believe that the university can provide the needed education although there are areas I feel need improving. Number two, the individual plays an important part in the type of education he receives.

Let’s look at the university first. A student’s education in horticulture should consist of both practical experience and classroom instruction. To give you an idea of the courses offered, I have listed the horticulture courses I completed: Greenhouse Management, Bedding and Foliage Plants, Plant Propagation, Garden Flowers, Nursery Management, Turf Management, Arboriculture, Growth and Development of Horticulture Crops, Weeds and Their Control, Entomology, Plant


Author: Wayne Lovelace

PP: 436

It has been said there is no better method for resolving the world's problems than by talking them over in a genuine sincere spirit of frankness and open-mindedness. I'm not certain of the magnitude of our topic, but I do know that it is of great concern to educators, students, and nurserymen from coast to coast. There should be no better place to resolve some of these differences than in this unique gathering of educators, students, and nurserymen.

I am happy to have this opportunity to share and discuss my experience and research in the area of the horticultural education. One finds this to be an area of major differences of opinions, not only between the educator, the student, and nurseryman, but between associates within the respective fields.

The fact that we are assembled here points to the need for continuing education at all levels in a field that is moving at an unparalleled pace and becoming technical and complex. This offers one of the greatest opportunities available to


Author: Ray E. Halward

PP: 442

Agri-horticulture has been recognized for many centuries as an area with unlimited possibilities in the therapeutic and rehabilitation field. We, in North America, are just beginning to take advantage of these possibilities in the areas of the mentally and physically handicapped, senior citizens, and correctional institutions, The population in all of these area is increasing rapidly, and we can no longer afford to support them in institutions, particularly if they are trainable and capable of being part of our work force and become self-sufficient. I am thinking particularly of the mentally and physically handicapped. The cost to keep a person in an institution at the present time is in excess of $15,000 per year. Our governments, at all levels, from municipal to federal, are trying desperately to solve the many problems in the rehabilitation field. They need the help and co-operation of all citizens and businesses to help fill some of the gaps.

There are many jobs in the nursery


Author: Dean R. Evert, Mary A. Holt

PP: 444

Aseptic culture of herbaceous plants is becoming an important commercial method of plant propagation. For some plants aseptic culture provides virus-free plants and the greatest number of plants produced per year. We developed aseptic culture of chrysanthemums for our herbaceous propagation laboratory. The aseptic culture laboratory illustrates the rapid rate of multiplication possible.

Aseptic culture involves several steps: 1) selection of plant species and plant parts, 2) selection and preparation of a growing medium, 3) development of aseptic isolation procedures, 4) growth and division of plantlets for continued multiplication or rooting, 5) establishment of rooted plantlets into soil.


Author: Randy E. Davis, Carl E. Whitcomb

PP: 448

Seeds of Pinus thunbergiana, Japanese black pine, Sapindus drummondii, western soapberry, and Pistacia chinensis, Chinese pistache were germinated and grown in bottomless containers on wire benches. Containers 3,6,9,12 and 15 inches deep and 1½, 2 and 2½ inches square were constructed from paraffin-coated milk carton stock. Top growth of Japanese black pine was greatest in the 2½-inch square and 9 inch deep container. Top growth of Chinese pistache and western soapberry was about the same in all container sizes and depths. Root growth was greatest in the 2½ square inch containers either 9 or 12 inches deep for all three species. Root development in 1½ and 2-inch containers was erratic for all species. There appears to be an optimum depth for air pruning of the taproot. Root development appears proportional to the diameter of container.

Author: Hugh C. Boylan, Harold Davidson

PP: 454

Propagation of Ilex verticillata (L.) Gray by hardwood and softwood cuttings was evaluated. In both experiments, peat, as a rooting medium, was superior to a mixture of peat and sand. The polyethylene chambers gave better results than the intermittent mist with hardwood cuttings, but was not significantly different for softwood cuttings. Hardwood cuttings did not root satisfactorily, but basal end treatment with 10,000 or 20,000 ppm IBA was advantageous. Wounding of hardwood cuttings did not provide any better results than untreated controls. The softwood cuttings method was much more successful; the optimum level of basal end auxin application was 7,500 ppm IBA. An advantage was gained by combining the peat medium with the mist environment.