Volume 29

Please click on an abstract of your choice to access the relevant downloadable papers. Please note, you will need to be logged in as member in order to access the proceeding abstracts.


Author: Tok Furuta

PP: 30

Picture John and Jane in their living room. Theirs is a comfortable home in an upper middle class neighborhood, Suburbia, USA. This evening, just before the cold winter, they are again in serious discussion about their future. Fuel for heating the house in the winter, and electricity for cooling the house in the summer is becoming more limited and that which is available is more costly. They had been asked to conserve on the amount of water they used during the past summer to keep their yard healthy and inviting. The price of gasoline has increased and they are facing prospects that gasoline is not always available. Inflation is taking its toll.

John and Jane have been through a lot together. Now they have built a lifestyle that is comfortable, exciting and pleasing — they are not about to give it up easily. They have built some wealth, and they do not want their wealth in paper to be eroded by inflation. How can they maintain their lifestyle, maintain their financial position and


Author: N.P. Matheny, R.W. Harris, J.L. Paul

PP: 82

Container?grown plants often fail to establish in the landscape because of desiccation. Transplanted container plants can suffer from lack of water since they usually have a large top (leaf surface) compared to the volume of the rootball in the container. In the nursery, they are irrigated frequently to keep up with evaporative demand. When transplanted, the rootball provides almost all the water for transpiration until roots have grown into the surrounding soil. Because of the limited amount of available water in the rootball, the plant requires frequent irrigation until it is established and can exploit the surrounding soil for water. Infrequent irrigation after transplanting can therefore result in moisture stress.

Moisture Relations in Transplanted Rootballs. After planting, water supply to the top is limited not only by a relatively small amount of water in the rootball but water may be further limited by water loss from the rootball to the soil surrounding the rootball (Figure 1)


Author: Peter B. Smith

PP: 555

Until recently our nursery's production of all grafted subjects was conducted in the traditional manner of lined out field rows. Inspired by a paper presented at our inaugural I.P.P.S. meeting held at Leura in 1973, presented by Mr. Roy Rumsey, "The Propagation of Container-grown roses," we determined to apply similar techniques to our crops.

As with all differing techniques, there are inevitably disadvantages and advantages when comparisons are made. In the transition from field-produced graftlings, to container-grown graftlings, we believe the advantages far outweigh the disadvantages.


Higher production costs due to controlled environmental structures, our current capital costs being:
  1. propagation (controlled environment) house, $150.00/sqm bed space.
  2. seedling production polyhouse @ $9.00/sqm bed space.
  3. grafting and training shadehouse @ $7.65/sqm bed space.
  4. "Hardening Off" open modules @ $1.35/sqm bed space

Author: Rob Van Der Staay

PP: 558

The basic concept of any type of propagation system is to induce roots on a cutting in the shortest possible time. This is usually achieved by subjecting the cutting to an environment conducive to rooting, i.e. high humidity, low light, and zero stress. How one achieves this is left to your imagination, but I would like to discuss just one possible system. I will indicate some of the factors one should consider in the construction of a heat mist propagation bed. Construction of such a bed is relatively simple and usually gives very good results.

Site. Choice of a level site for the construction of a propagation house of any size is important. The major reasons for this are ease of construction and level installation of mist lines, reducing possible drip. General house construction may be of light-weight bubble or igloo design, or a more substantial glass-house which has been adequately protected from corrosion.

Water Quality. A major concern of any mist system is an adequate quantity


Author: G.K. Meldrum

PP: 561

There are many references in the literature to the vegetative propagation of various species of plants by cuttings. In my observation the majority of these articles assume that the effect of treatment on all plant materials which can be broadly claimed as similar, will be comparable irrespective of the species. For example, commonly used commercial rooting powders are available in three strengths to meet the needs of all cuttings within the broad classifications of softwood, semi-hardwood and hardwood. I believe that such an assumption is unlikely to be valid and advance the view that there is need for further specific studies on the rooting behaviour of cuttings of various species.

This is particularly true with camellia in which root formation is so slow that the cutting may expend its store of energy, or for some other reason, die before developing a root system of its own. Such an eventually is less likely in kinds of cuttings that root quickly. Unlike some plant species which


Author: Bruce Tibballs

PP: 565

Eucalypt bark is being composted by ponding it for 3 to 6 months and storing from 12 to 18 months prior to use. More research is needed, however as there are still a few problems to be sorted out, the method of composting and the time required being the most important.

Mr. Stan Clark, who is composting and marketing the material, believes a period of 20 to 24 months is essential to completely break down the solid particles of bark. He has found that after 18 months considerable heat returns to the stockpile if it is turned over. This pile should consist of at least 75 m3 to get 55 to 60°C temperatures for pathogen control. This is achieved without the addition of any form of nitrogen. However, small trials in compost bins with chemicals added only gave 43°C for a period of eight days, but this then dropped back to 15.5°C.

Partly composted materials also create a problem with earthworms. They chew it up and almost completely empty tube stock, not leaving enough medium for the plant to


Author: Gordon Lamb

PP: 567

When Sierra Blen Nursery Mix (19–6–10 + iron) was initially marketed in Perth, Australia it was inferred that we need not use a primary source of nitrogen to counteract drawdown on a sand and sawdust mix. We decided to conduct our own trials to determine if this was the case, using 160 plants in 8 groups:
Group I. 4 pounds U.F.38 lime, trace elements, 5 pounds 280-day Osmocote. (Control)
Group 2. 4 pounds U.F. 38 lime, 5 pounds Sierra Blend
Group 3. 4 pounds U.F. 38 lime, 4 pounds Sierra Blend, 1 pound 100-day Osmocote
Group 4. 4 pounds U.F. 38 lime, 3 pounds Sierra Blend, 2 pounds 100-day Osmocote
Group 5. 4 pounds U.F. 38 lime, 4 pounds Sierra Blend, 2 pounds 100-day Osmocote
Group 6. 4 pounds U.F. 38 lime, 2 pounds Sierra Blend, 2 pounds 100-day Osmocote
Group 7. 4 pounds U.F. 38 lime, 2½ pounds Sierra Blend, 2 pounds 100-day Osmocote
Group 8. 4 pounds U.F. 38 lime, 1 pound Sierra Blend, 2 pounds 100-day Osmocote

The plants selected for experimentation were Grevilea biternata, G. robusta, G.


Author: Alan M. Gray

PP: 568

There are many Tasmanian endemic plants which would make admirable specimens in any garden or park. Unfortunately, most are either unknown or unavailable to the commercial nursery trade, and hence to the general public. Many of these plants are easily propagated, establish readily, and require little special attention. Some, however, do present problems in propagation and, as such, are a challenge to the amateur and professional plant propagator alike.

I have selected some species which I believe have considerable merit and the potential to become desirable ornamentals. Not only is it desirable to introduce and produce these plants on account of their unquestionable aesthetic value but, surely, as our natural forests and bushlands are being decimated at an increasing rate it is vital that we make the effort to preserve some of these plants for posterity.

It has been my frustrating experience that many commercial nurseries are reluctant to undertake the propagation and production of


Author: Ron Richards

PP: 573

The nutrient film culture (N.F.T.) method of growing plants was devised by Dr. A.J. Cooper of the Glasshouse Crops Research Institute, Littlehampton, England. Basically it consists of growing the plants with their roots contained in a narrow channel and moistened with a warm flowing nutrient solution only a few millimetres in depth. Deeper solutions are being used in some situations with reasonable success but are not truly N.F.T. and will not be considered in this paper.

All the essential chemical elements needed for plant growth are contained in the flowing film of nutrients. Following uptake of nutrients, the acidity varies, and adjustments are made with phosphoric or nitric acids. The depletion of nutrients may be measured electrically and adjustments made using specifically formulated "top-up" solutions.

In Tasmania six commercial enterprises are currently using N.F.T. to produce crops of tomatoes, and experiments are in progress with cucumbers, carnations and chrysanthemums.


Author: Rob Van Der Staay

PP: 574


There are many forms of pH meters available today. These range from pH soil testing kits for less than $10 in garden shops to very expensive and elaborate units found in research laboratories costing in excess of $600. Meters available for soil testing can be reasonably priced at about $200 and give very reliable and accurate results. The only reliable measurement of pH is via what is called a glass bulb pH electrode. When purchasing such a pH unit or electrode, get what is called a combination electrode, as it has its reference and pH electrode built in one; pH electrodes require what they call a reference electrode, but purchase of a combination electrode will not necessarily mean a purchase of another electrode.

Measuring pH is relatively simple in soil. A simple procedure is to take a sample of soil in a clean cup or beaker and add sufficient water to make up a paste rather like a sloppy mud-pie mix. Mix well and allow to stand for approximately 15 to 20 minutes. Mix again and


Author: Penelope Rose, Lynne Twentyman

PP: 576

A "system" may be defined as a method for the collection and presentation of facts. Its only product is information. Information collected from the system enables decisions to be made which, in turn, improve efficiency by allowing the maximum use to be made of resources and labor.

While the various operating areas of a nursery are intimately related, each one can be considered as a separate entity from the point of view of a systems design (Figure 1).


Author: Arnold Teese

PP: 580

Although taxonomists have divided the genus Acer into 13 or more sections this is not always a true guide to compatibility. The species, A. pseudoplatanus is compatible with a considerable number of species which are botanically well outside their own section; also the cv. Atropurpureum which has a purple coloring on the reverse of the leaf seems to be more compatible with other species. A. platanoides can be grafted onto A. pseudoplatanus ‘Atropurpureum’ quite readily but with difficulty onto the common form. A. pentaphyllum, not yet placed taxonomically but is superficially similar to the Trifoliata section, is compatible with A. pseudoplatanus, as are A. saccharum and A. pensylvanicum, each in different sections, A. palmatum is also reasonably wide in compatibility, particularly with some of the "snake bark" group, e.g. A. laxiflorum, etc. There is still room for considerable study in this field.

Although many maples can be budded or even grown from cuttings — and some are better


Author: Lydiane Kyte, Bruce Briggs

PP: 90

Some growers are asking if tissue culture is a tool they should try. There is no single answer but with a few guidelines and a modest investment answers are soon evident. In the past two years Briggs Nursery has ventured into rhododendron tissue culture production. This effort is backed up by 10 years of interest and research support. A number of cultivars are now beginning to come out of test tubes and into pots in significant quantities. At this stage of production we feel it appropriate to share some of our beginning experiences including a brief review of starting rhododendrons in tissue culture and some of the systems that have worked for us.

Growers looking for information on how to get started can find help through many sources (5). Among these are agricultural extension agents, colleges, experiment stations, libraries, tissue culture and horticultural organizations, companies that sell tissue culture supplies, and from nurseries engaged in plant tissue culture. Courses in plant


Author: Robert Kasteel

PP: 582

African violets are one of the most specialized of ornamental crops. They are easily propagated from seed or leaf cuttings. Fully matured leaves from the outside of flower stalks are preferred for propagation. Adventitious buds are rapidly formed and develop into plantlets.

African violets are not a difficult crop to grow if you understand them and their conditions. The important environmental considerations are as follows:

Light. The emphasis is on light intensity rather than day-length. The optimum solar radiant flux density is 1100 ft. candles. Extensive yellowing occurs in the foliage of African violets which are exposed to radiant energy levels above 1200 ft. candles. This is due to chlorophyll destruction by the radiant energy. Light intensity above 1100 ft. candles reduces the number of flowers per plant in some cultivars. More commonly, the initiation of flowers by African violets is seriously limited at radiant flux densities below 300 ft. candles. A radiant flux of 100 ft.


Author: Jack Pike

PP: 586

In discussing capillary watering it is first necessary to see how it fits in with the different classes of water. Soil moisture has been classified into three categories (3) as illustrated in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Classification of Soil Moisture. From "Irrigation Principles and Practices" 3rd Ed., Israelson, O.W. and Hansen, V.E. (3).

Excess or gravitational water will rapidly drain from the soil under the forces of gravity. This water lies in between the saturation and the field capacity points.

Available or capillary water is the free water available to the plant, held in the soil by capillary forces and thus drainage is very slow. It lies between the field capactiy and the permanent wilting point.

Unavailable or hygroscopic water lies beyond the permanent wilting point. Unavailable water is held too tightly in the soil by the capillary forces and surface tension and is not accessible to the plant roots.

The phenomenon of capillary rise of liquids


Author: Ian D. Geard

PP: 589

A number of plant disease problems can be encountered in plant propagation but two of the most important, "damping off" and "root rot", can be used to illustrate some of the main principles of avoiding disease.

Consideration of disease can be based on what is sometimes called "The Disease Triangle" (Figure 1). It is self evident that to have disease there must be a host and a pathogen but the mere presence of these two does not necessarily mean that a disease problem will result. There are few, if any, fungi encountered in nursery propagation which are so virulent and so infectious that their presence is a virtual guarantee of disease. The influence of the third element of this triangle, the environment, is vitally important in determining the outcome and whether or not disease results.

This Disease Triangle represents the three important elements in the natural situation but in crop production generally, and in nursery production in particular, there is another important factor which


Author: Robert E. Harris, John H. Stevenson

PP: 95

Heat treatment and in vitro culture of shoot tips were used to free Vitis vinifera ‘Liemberger’ of leafroll virus and ‘Forta’ and ‘Auxerrois’ (‘Cl-21’) of fanleaf virus. Rapid propagation of the French hybrid ‘Baco’ was obtained on full-strength MS medium plus adenine sulfate (80 mg/l), NaH2PO4 H2O (170 mg/l), i-inositol (100 mg/l), thiamine-HCl (0.4 mg/l), and BAP (3 to 4 mg/l). Rooting of proliferated shoots was most rapid on ¼-strength MS with 0.08 mg/l IBA. The method appears suitable for the rapid propagation of other cultivars.

Author: Marcus A. Petersen

PP: 108

Queensland is a very large state of Australia, stretching from New Guinea in the north to approximately 1,500 miles south. So we have very tropical areas in the northern half and sub-tropical in the south. There are, of course, some areas with a temperate climate because of altitude.

We have a dividing range of mountains running north to south. On the eastern side of this range we have a very fertile coastal strip, with rainfalls ranging from 50 inches in the south to over 200 inches in the tropical coastal zone in the north. To the west of the range the rainfall decreases inland and a large area of the western region has less than 10 inches of rain per year and is subject to very bad drought periods at times.

The major part of our population of 2½ million lives along the coastal region with about one million of these living in the state capitol, Brisbane, which is in the southeast corner of the state. Most of the nursery production takes place in this area. Nurseries in the north of


Author: David R. Roberts

PP: 110

Spring has always been a magic time for gardeners, bringing an influx of buyers to nurseries for flower and vegetable plants. Plants providing immediate color play a very important role in spring sales for nurseries and mass merchandisers. In recent years people have become more and more interested in "instant color" resulting in increasing sales of 3-inch, 4-inch, 6-inch, and 1 gallon color items. For the wholesale operation this means getting an early jump in winter. The name of the game is to pack your greenhouses for the spring explosion.

In Northern California, spring sales generally break loose in early March. For many greenhouse operations this means spring color production must get off to a fast start in December and January. For most growers, this means waiting for poinsettias to clear out and then quickly replanting. It is extremely important to have seedlings, cell paks, bulbs, or pots for shifting ready to fill up emptying greenhouses. These crops can be for finishing in early


Author: David L. Morgan

PP: 113

Live oaks (Quercus spp.) have been grown from acorns commercially for years. Most species of oaks are wind pollinated and are highly heterozygous; as a result, the progeny of a single tree may not resemble its genetic parent. Live oak trees commonly differ in drought hardiness, salt tolerance, height, earliness to leaf, and the presence of insect galls. These characteristics are not reproducible through seed propagation.

Plants propagated asexually (vegetatively) through cuttings reproduce all the genetic information of the parent plant. This is why the unique characteristics of any plant can be perpetuated by establishing a clone. Cuttings taken from a tree genetically resistant to the formation of insect-induced mealy-oak galls, for example, should be expected to grow into gall-free trees.

There may exist further reasons for vegetative propagation of oaks, such as availability of cutting material when acorn crops are poor or out of season; it may prove easier, more rapid, and more


Author: Howard C. Brown

PP: 116

In April, 1978, I had the opportunity to travel to six European countries with Class VII of California's Agriculture Leadership Program.

Before discussing the agriculture that we saw I would like to consider this Leadership Program because I believe it is one of the most important developments that has taken place in agriculture in recent years.

The program was initiated by the Agricultural Education Foundation and is funded entirely by agricultural organizations. It costs $240,000 to run a class of 30 through a two-year program. The objective is to select young people between the ages of 27 and 40 who have demonstrated leadership ability and show the potential for even greater leadership. Working with the Agricultural Education Foundation are the deans of agriculture of four California universities — the two Cal Polys, Fresno State and the University of California at Davis.

Candidates are interviewed by six screening committees, with a requirement that 80% of the class must be


Author: Robert L. Mazalewski, Wesley P. Hackett

PP: 118

The cytokinins, PBA and BA were the most effective treatments tested in inducing buds to break in the lignotuber as well as the upper trunk region of Eucalyptus ficifolia. BA at a concentration of 0.8% in water-ethanol (1:1) caused an average of 229 bud breaks per tree. Stem cuttings taken from the PBA-induced shoots exhibited a greater propensity to the root when taken from the area of the lignotuber than when taken from higher on the trunk. Furthermore, cuttings from basal parts of shoots, originating from the lignotuber, rooted better than cuttings taken from the apical portion of these shoots.

Author: C.J. Alley

PP: 125

In California there are approximately 645,000 acres of Vitis vinifera grapevines. Of these, 325,000 acres are wine cultivars, 85,000 table cultivars and 235,000 raisin cultivars. The trend in the wine industry has been for an increased demand for white table wines because more people are beginning to consume these with their meals. Table wines are considered to supplement food with the meals.

Most persons beginning to drink wine will choose a sweet to slightly sweet white table wine because it more clearly resembles non-alcholic beverages to which they are accustomed. Red table wines are more harsh than white wines and the desert wines, which are higher in alcoholic content, are more difficult to drink. Because of the increased demand for white table wines a shortage in this type of wine is now present along with somewhat of a surplus of many common red wines. Consequently there is a higher premium paid for fruit of the white table wine cultivars than for the reds. In some of the


Author: Bart Schutzman

PP: 131

Problems in germinating the seed of many species of xerophytic plants (representing the Cactaceae and other plant families) have been noted; possible explanations for these include initially low or rapidly declining viability, mechanical resistance of seed coats to imbibition or subsequent emergence of the seedling, or chemically caused dormancies, among which are inhibitors in seed coats or in embryos.

Seeds of 14 species of xerophytic, succulent plants representing the Cactaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Passifloraceae and Vitaceae were given combinations of various pre-treatments including the following:

  1. 24-hour soak in 200 ppm gibberellic acid solution
  2. 3-minute soak in 0.1% thiourea solution
  3. hot water soak
  4. mechanical scarification
  5. leaching for 24–36 hours

Also used was a post-planting treatment, namely complete darkness surrounding the seed flats during the germination period.

The seeds were planted using randomized complete block design and germination was monitored. No


Author: John A. Delargy

PP: 32

A review of literature pertaining to the promotory influence of etiolation on root formation in shoot cuttings is presented. Characteristic features of this phenomenon are discussed in relation to both the action of light on growth and development and to the possible role of growth substances. The interaction of ringbarking (girdling) treatment with localized etiolation of the stem, in relation to root production, was investigated and a summary of the experimental results is given.

Author: Graeme C. Platt

PP: 134

With growing interest in New Zealand plants, both here and overseas, it is time to take a critical look at the New Zealand native plant material currently in production in the nursery trade.

Because of the desire of New Zealand's early settlers to have gardens that reminded them of their home country, great efforts were made to grow and propagate plants from all over the world. Many of those that grew well are, for the most part, on our noxious weeds list today, and a number of those early garden plants have been propagated continuously up until the modern time. While this was going on, New Zealand's natural flora was being destroyed during the process of clearing land for farming and horticulture. A number of New Zealand plant species were taken overseas, and to this day a few of our plants are more widely grown outside the country than they are in New Zealand. There are thousands of gardens in New Zealand that don't contain one indigenous plant. New Zealand gardeners have been slow to


Author: Andrew D. Maloy

PP: 139

Cedrela sinensis, commonly known as the Chinese Toon, is one of the most handsome of spring foliage trees. It's growth habit is straight and erect and it has large, ash like leaves up to 60 cm long, finely divided into ten or more leaflets.

As the leaves unfold and develop they are a beautiful shade of rich pink which makes a most spectacular display. As the foliage matures it changes to creamy white shades and then to a deep green for the rest of the growing season. It requires warm conditions and shelter from wind which can destroy the tender pink spring foliage.

Cedrela is an extremely popular tree for the home garden and is, therefore, a very worthwhile subject to be grown in the nursery. It grows well in containers and even when young produces the spectacular spring foliage.

Cedrela has a tendency to sucker from adventitious buds on the roots, and given favorable conditions one Cedrela plant can become a large cluster of many plants. This gives rise to the main method of propagation


Author: Barrie L. McKenzie

PP: 141

Recently we saw the end of a campaign in New Zealand to stimulate the interest in export by manufacturers and producers as well as make people aware that export is vital. Slogans such as — "The Ship won't Wait," "Our Jobs Depend on Export," "Take the Plunge," were common advertising. It is without doubt that interest in export has been generated, but little can compare with the interest in horticulture as an export and over a short period we have seen the small grower to the large million dollar company making claims that "moves are being made in the horticultural field" — where does this leave us? We are concerned, in particular, with the field that most here today are familiar, i.e. the growing of live plant material, whether it be for local or exports sales.

In ten years we have seen considerable leaps in the value of live plant exports. The following is the F.O.B. value of live plants exports (ref. N.Z. Statistics Department).

     1969 — $39,600
     1972 — $96,800
     1976 — $141,195
     1978 — $530,859 (export to 27

Author: M.B. Thomas

PP: 143

A range of proteaceous shrubs and other nursery plants were grown in containers with soilless media and various N levels primarily supplied from Osmocote (26 percent N). Plants demonstrated a range of responsiveness. Grevillea robusta was the most responsive but required an optimum near to 120g N/m3/month; two Eucalyptus species showed a smaller response than G. robusta but required an N optimum of 97g N/m3/month. Camellia japonica and Erica herbacea (Syn.: E. carnea) ‘Springwood White’ responded best to the range 57 to 121 g N/m3/month. G. rosmarinifolia and Leucadendron adscendens were the next most responsive species, then Hakea laurina and Dryandra formosa. Leucospermum candicans, Protea repens, P. scolymocephala could grow satisfactorily on very low N levels, amounting to just over 5g N/m3/month from Osmocote 18/2.6/10. Optimum N rates for all these species are discussed.

Author: Walter P. Miller

PP: 158

Reasons for grafting. Most rhododendrons today are produced from cuttings but there are, however, still a few cultivars that have defied the plant propagator, making them virtually impossible to root. Grafting is then essential if the cultivar or species is to be propagated.

A second reason for grafting is the widespread problem of Phytophthora which causes sudden collapse and the death of the plant. Some rootstocks are less prone to this disease, therefore, scions grafted on these stocks have an advantage when grown under less favorable conditions.

Selection of Rootstocks. The choice of a suitable rootstock is very important and like all root understocks has a definite bearing on the future success of the plants.

The four rootstocks commonly used in this country are:
     Rhododendron ponticum
     Rhododendron ‘Elegans’ (‘Roseum Elegans’? Bot. Ed.)
    &nbspRhododendron ‘Sir Robert Peel’
    &nbspRhododendron ‘Cunningham's White’

R. Ponticum. In England and America R. Ponticum


Author: Ian D. Ivey

PP: 161

A series of trials in 1978 and 1979 showed that the rooting ability of feijoa cuttings was influenced primarily by the parent tree. Some parent trees produced cuttings which showed high rooting percentages whilst others produced cuttings of very low rooting ability. Other factors, such as the position from which the cuttings were taken from the tree and the size of the container in which the cuttings were grown, also influenced rooting ability. Longer exposure to indolebutyric acid in alcohol as a dip did not increase rooting ability. The taking of cuttings in late winter as opposed to late autumn had less effect than the parent tree on rooting ability.

Author: D. McKenzie

PP: 168

The most pressing problem facing the nursery industry is the need for new methods to speed the bulking up process with new introductions. At present, using ordinary outdoor nursery techniques, it requires at least four years to propagate 1,000 plants from one source plant that is moderately difficult to grow, like most fruit trees. We need to reduce this time to one year — so that we can make faster progress in introducing:
  1. new rootstocks, e.g. BAC 29, ‘Colt’ cherry, Aotea selections
  2. new cultivars from quarantine, e.g. ‘Red Fuji’, ‘Jonagold’, ‘Gloster’
  3. new hybrids from breeding
  4. new virus-free selections
  5. new colour sports, e.g. ‘Red Delicious’, ‘Royal Gala’, ‘Braeburn’
  6. new kinds of fruit, e.g. Nashi pear, persimmon, loquat

The New Zealand Tree Crops Association has recognized the problem in the development of new kinds of walnuts, hazelnuts and chestnuts and, in order to find some solution to this frustrating delay, they have decided to establish a special trust fund that


Author: D.S. Anderson

PP: 169

Smith Soil Industries of Auckland, New Zealand, began trading as E.R. Smith Ltd. in 1960. It was then an owner-operated business involved mostly with the supply of various grades of metal to the building industry, and screened topsoil to the horticultural trade. The Company operated from a quarry at Mangere.

The move into the topsoil business was the first step towards forging links with the horticultural trade and with the forming of N.Z. Peat Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary company, whose purpose it was to mine peat at Ngatea on the Hauraki Plains. Following this the step to blending mixes of a U.C. type became apparent.

Using the Hauraki peat and mixing with a suitable grade pumice sand, dredged from the Waikato river at Tuakau the company, which had now changed its name to Smith Soil Industries, began supplying mixes blended to each customer's requirements.

The use of slow-release nutrients became apparent and, with the addition of slow-release trace elements, container plant


Author: Andrew D. Maloy

PP: 171

Two years ago, due to the shortage of peat, we started to look for other materials that we could use as a substitute. Eighteen months ago we started supplementing the peat component in our mix with granulated pine bark. Initial trials were satisfactory and for the past nine months our container mix has been made up of 75% granulated pine bark, 25% pumice.

The mix that we pot our rooted cuttings and seedlings into has 25% peat, 25% bark, 50% pumice. This is because the particle size of the bark is too coarse for the young plants. The source of the bark is Pinus radiata from the Thames area and is processed by Granulated Bark Supplies in Kumeu, Auckland. It is granulated by a hammer milling process and has not been composted or stored for any periods prior to being used in the potting mixes. The pH of the bark as it is delivered to us is 4.2 compared to Hauraki peat 3.75, and Kiwi peat 4.5. The bark and pumice is mixed in a paddle mixer and, during the mixing process, fertilizers are


Author: Robert Browne

PP: 172

The reasons and methods of propagating Sophora microphylla ‘Fulvida’ from seed are discussed in this article.

The main use of this plant for me is as bonsai material. The growth appears naturally stunted and the leaf structure is very fine. It is endemic to the west coast of the Auckland district where it grows in great abundance. This plant does not grow through the normal juvenile stages and will flower after six years from seed planting. The flowers appear in mid-spring and the seed is ready to harvest in late summer. This kowhai has also proved to be very resistant to drought conditions.

Seed Germination. The secret of my quick and even germination of seed is the time of seed collection. The seed must not be allowed to harden at all, but at the same time must be allowed to develop fully. This is difficult to convey, but my simple test seems to be successful. I collect the seed at a time when I can, but with some difficulty, cleanly cut a seed in half with my thumb nail. If the seed


Author: Hudson T. Hartmann, John E. Whisler

PP: 36

The need for removal of pathogenic organisms in soil mixes to be used for seed germination and other propagation and growing purposes is well known and accepted (1,3,5,6,7). The two general methods for doing this are: (1) by chemical treatment and (2) by heat treatment. Heat, particularly steam heat, is acknowledged to be superior to chemicals for several reasons (5). In heat pasteurization, holding the soil mix at the proper temperature for the proper length of time is crucial in obtaining the desired results. It is also important that the soil mix be moist for several days prior to the time of heat treatment to obtain satisfactory killing of pathogens and weed seeds. The ideal temperature combination is generally accepted as 140°F (60°C) for 30 minutes (5,8). Temperatures lower than this will not kill the pathogens and weed seeds. Temperatures much higher will kill non-pathogenic beneficial saprophytic microorganisms, thus creating a biological vacuum. If accidental reinoculation with pathogenic

Author: R. Noel McMillan

PP: 173

This article concerns Cyclamen persicum ‘Giganteum’ — a highly bred and large flowered form of cyclamen which has become very popular as a winter flowering pot plant. Unfortunately it is proving a difficult plant to grow of recent years and one is seeing its demise at a steady rate. It is also, unfortunately, an expensive crop to produce with a high input rate of skill, cost and maintenance, and is at the stage of pricing itself beyond consumer acceptance. This is unfortunate because far more goes into the preparation of a good 15 cm cyclamen than a good conifer, and both return the same — so perhaps the problem is one of grower and retailer attitudes, and one of consumer education.

In order to give the problems of production some meaning, I would like to move through the production stages and relate some of the difficulties experienced at these stages.

Planting. Basically there is one rule, "Cleanliness and the avoidance of extremes in all aspects is essential". A standard


Author: D. Cohen, D. Elliott

PP: 177

Methods are outlined for the micropropagation of high-bush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) and tamarillo (tree-tomato) (Cyphomandra betacea). These methods should have immediate application for the rapid propagation of new cultivars.

In the case of blueberry, multiplication is achieved by cutting the shoots which develop in culture into single node segments. A multiplication rate of about 5 fold every 6 weeks has been achieved. Small shoots about 2 cm long can be easily rooted in seedling flats under high humidity conditions.

In the case of tamarillo, multiplication is achieved by a combination of enhanced auxiliary bud development and adventitious buds arising from the swollen stem base. A multiplication rate of 6 to 8 fold every 2 weeks has been achieved. Rooting can be carried out either in sterile culture or directly in a seeding flat.


Author: B.H. Howard, H.R. Shepherd

PP: 182

Trees of cultivars whose cuttings cannot be rooted, or which grow poorly on their own roots, are commonly grafted onto seedlings of the same or a related species. This doubtless contributes to the variable bud-take and tree growth experienced in many nurseries.

Sixty years of research into the use of clonal rootstocks for fruit trees has shown how they influence many important tree characters, of which tree size has been studied more than any other. It has been suggested, largely on the basis of observation, that rootstock influence extends to at least 53 genera of woody plants (9). Clonal rootstock attributes of particular interest to nurserymen include the following:

  1. Uniform and rapid plant establishment associated with a fibrous root system.
  2. High level of bud-take based on specific compatibility tests.
  3. Uniform growth because all the stocks are of the same genetic make-up.
  4. Known performance in relation to soil-borne diseases.

These important advantages noted for fruit must be


Author: Nicholas D. Dunn

PP: 187

This discussion considers the production of fruit tree rootstocks, the techniques that are now commercially in use, the reasons for choosing these techniques of production and applying them to individual subjects based on production costs, suitability for site, and the management of our particular nursery.

Author: D.N. Whalley

PP: 190

Data are presented for rooting, plant growth rates in containers, and field establishment for Leyland cypress trees of 8 different origins.

Cuttings taken in February gave best rooting in all cases and those from lateral branches rooted better than those from shoot tips. Growth rates were measured during a full season in containers. The influences of age of tree, method of staking, and soil type on establishment and growth, when transplanted into the field, were also studied.

Clones superior in rooting and growth to those commercially grown were identified. Staking was beneficial only on a light, sandy soil type.


Author: J.S. Watkins

PP: 202

The attempts to propagate Prunus tenella ‘Firehill’ by layering and by softwood cuttings in the internal mist unit were failures, mainly because we could not get even the small percentage that rooted to grow on to become saleable plants. I will not tell you how many years we had been trying, but will only go back to 5 years ago when the winter bareroot wax-dipped bench grafting programme was started and P. ‘Firehill’ was one of the subjects tried.

The first problem, and a major one, was trying to find any suitable material for scions. However, by some means or other, about 100 scions were grafted with a take of 20 to 25%. These plants were potted and the subsequent growth was quite good thanks mainly to the understock. It was decided to try budding that summer and strange to relate the success rate was similar, a take of around 25%, and again the growth response the following year was very good. Now we have solved the problem of good quality material for grafting and budding and the


Author: Christopher K.A. Verstage

PP: 204

Corylopsis is a member of the family Hamamelidaceae, cuttings of which, as a family, are difficult to root and hard to get through their first winter. Corylopsis is a genus that has high ornamental value at a time of the year when there is little else in the way of flowering plants available in the garden.

There are various means available to the propagator, e.g. seed, layering, and cuttings.

Seed. This is not a commercial method, as good seed is not easily obtained and does tend to have double dormancy.

Layering. This has been the standard practice for producing plants up until recent times when cuttings have taken over as the best method.

Stock plants are lined out about 2 m apart each way, the beds are top dressed with waste cutting compost, which is worked into the soil to give a good medium for the layers to root into. A shoot from the stock plant is pulled down and pegged into the soil surface; where the stem is bent into the ground the stem is wounded to help in the rooting


Author: Stewart St. John

PP: 205

Reasons for choosing to start a nursery of this type:
  1. Limited capital required
  2. Plenty of scope competing with imports
  3. Cheap source of seed — locally collected
  4. Working alongside knowledgeable people on the subject
  5. Interesting and challenging subject in itself
  6. Local outlets

Type of plants to be produced

  1. One-year-old lining-out stock
  2. Understocks for grafting and budding
  3. Hedging material
  4. Potted stocks for grafting — birch, beech, Robinia yew.

Chosing a site. One should choose a site with a light to medium well-drained soil. My progress has been stifled by having to start on sites that held these drawbacks:

     Half-acre plot right next to the river: subject to flooding and frosts. Soil is fertile but heavy and difficult to work when wet.
     Top of a hill: very exposed, cold site. Land is ridge and furrow, causing irregular soil depth: poor drainage and difficult to mechanize.

Seedlings in their first year benefit greatly from warmth. An ideal site would be well sheltered, especially from the southwest, flat or with a


Author: Volker Behrens

PP: 211

Many of our container-grown ornamental shrubs are produced within 15 months from the cutting up to saleable size. Therefore these mass-produced plants are rather cheap and production costs have to be kept at a minimum. One of the main cost factors is a repeated feeding by hand. It is impossible to give all the fertilizer the needs during the growing season because of the high salt concentration on the one side and the leaching of nutrients on the other. And liquid fertilizers raise problems too, especially in very wet years. To avoid these problems the fertilizer industry offers various slow-release fertilizers. They are based on two different principles; one is to condense urea with different aldehydes (Ureaform, Crotudor, Isodur); the other is to coat a soluble fertilizer with a material that releases the nutrients slowly.

But up till now only few investigations are published on questions like the following: in which amount should these fertilizers be given to grow containerized


Author: Roger Wasley

PP: 215

Propagation of Berberis can be carried out in three ways: seed, division, and cuttings. I shall concentrate on the last of these methods, cutting propagation, which is the main method we use in our nursery. First a word about the stock plants. These are fed with A.I.I.I., N.P.K. + trace elements fertilizer in the spring at which time they are pruned back to encourage vigorous growth.

On our nursery we have most of the stock plants outside but we have some, e.g. Berberis ‘Harlequin’, ‘Darts Red Lady’, ‘Pink Queen’, ‘Rose Glow’, ‘Gold Ring’ and ‘Green Carpet’ planted under polythene to produce a large amount of growth fairly quickly. This is the first year I have had this type of stock plant under cover and so far the signs are encouraging as the growth produced is first class.

Now to the mechanics of the operation. There are two types of cuttings taken on the nursery, one type for the mist unit and the other for cold frames. The first method used during the year is the mist unit and


Author: Wesley A. Humphrey, Thomas W. Mock

PP: 41

A new fungicide, Subdue (CGA 48988)1, has shown a high level of activity in controlling Phycomycetous root rooting fungi that attack ornamental plants. Juniperus sabina ‘Tamariscifolia,’ Pinus radiata and Brassaia actinophylla plants growing in an inoculated soil mix and treated with Subdue had more top growth than plants growing in the untreated inoculated soil mix.

Author: Keith Loach

PP: 216

Past and Present. The International Plant Propagators' Society was founded at a time when mist propagation was in its infancy as a commercial system in the United States, and the founding members played a significant role in its development. The early history of the method has been outlined by Snyder (16). Mist propagation has frequently been viewed as a mechanized version of older frame methods which involved manually-applied overhead watering of the cuttings. The most appropriate comparison is with the old "sun-frame" method which used a closed unshaded frame, with cuttings watered laboriously every half-hour.

The first recorded use of mist (3) by G.E.L. Spencer in 1936 was for propagation of cacao cuttings and was apparently unsuccessful. It attracted little attention at the time but at the end of that decade Rains, Gardner, and Fisher in the United States independently used mist systems for a wide range of species with considerable success. Through the 1940s mist was tried by an


Author: David N. Clark

PP: 229

Ivan Dickings, Propagation Manager for Notcutts and myself, have had a once in a lifetime opportunity of planning and constructing a new propagation and liner facility which will take Notcutts into the 80s.

While the time scale for the operation could be simplified into one year planning, one year construction, one year debugging, the decision, in principle, to build a new propagation facility had been made a few years earlier — in fact, at least 28 years ago, according to the oldest member of the propagation staff. In preparation for the new unit, Ivan has been building up a team of staff capable of exploiting the new facilities for the past four years. We had also reappraised the propagation systems we were using including rooting media, direct rooting systems, types of liner pots, etc.

Objectives in planning a new propagation and liner unit:

  1. Provide near optimum growing environment facilities for the wide range of plants propagated and techniques used. Maximize use of space in this

Author: Margaret A. Scott

PP: 233

This is a review of the work with stock beds at Efford E.H.S. and deals with why and how they were started, their management, and some data on cutting production, particularly in relation to pruning treatments.

The experimental programme with hardy nursery stock deals mainly with container production plus some work on propagation. Between 1973–78 there was a rapid expansion in the volume of work. In order to have confidence in the accuracy of results from experiments, uniform batches of cuttings were required. This proved virtually impossible to obtain with bought-in material. Often greater differences occurred among plants within the same treatment than among the treatments themselves. Neither could there be firm guarantees of when cuttings would be available and occasionally mixed cultivars occurred which made interpretation of results more difficult. Hence it was decided to propagate our own material for trials.


Author: Peter Howarth

PP: 241

We have been attempting to propagate and produce about 5,000 finished camellias for garden centre sales each year. Initially we purchased stock plants from various nurseries on the Continent and in the U.K. Variability in this stock was obvious, therefore the selection of the best plants was made to form the basis of our "mother stock." This material was potted and grown on, some of which was planted outside on a hedgerow system, the remainder grown on in 10" containers in a shaded cold house. In the meantime good specimen plants were located in an area to which we have access and this season it is hoped that up to 5,000 Williamsii hybrids will be produced.

Regrettably in the 1978–1979 winter we lost many of these hybrids growing outdoors, the amazing thing being that many of the Japanese hybrids came through better than say, ‘J.C. Williams’ or ‘Donation’.

Under Rokolene net tunnels a similar situation occurred when the newer Williamsii hybrids stood up to the severe weather


Author: Christopher Lloyd

PP: 243

Plants that do not readily fit into nursery production systems tend to be dropped. The result is more and more plants of ever fewer cultivars and a general impoverishment to horticulture. Some of the plants mentioned below seem to me to appeal strongly to the public when they are given the chance to see them in a flattering environment.

Rheum australe (R. emodi) strikes me as a handsomer rhubarb than the more widely grown R. palmatum, because its leaves are more deeply incised and the rich purple coloring on their undersurfaces is long retained. The pure white inflorescence, borne in May, shows up well against a dark background.

The liliaceous Veratrum album carries a striking, branched inflorescence whose whiteness shows up more tellingly in a general garden or landscape setting than the better known, dark maroon-flowered V. nigrum, which is in more general circulation. V. album has a long effective season from July onwards. It produces an abundance of seed, but about 4 years is


Author: A.R. Carter

PP: 248

The difficulties of producing daphnes in commercial quantities attracted quite a number of people to this discussion session chaired by A.R. Carter.

It started with a recommendation of the book, Daphne, by C.D. Brickell and B. Mathew, published by the Alpine Garden Society.


A list of plants that provided a seasonably reliable seed set was given. Although experience was limited among group members, it was stated by one that his Daphne giraldii did not crop regularly.

D. acutiloba          D. m. 'Alba'
D. giraldii            &nbspD. oleoides
D. laureola           D. pontica
D. longilobata     D. retusa
D. mezereum      D. tangutica

In general, seed should be collected before the berries are fully colored. Birds can be troublesome and greenfinches will take the berries whilst still green.

Arther Carter described an experiment with seed of Daphne mezereum taken from berries at different stages of ripeness on 15 June 1974. The results expressed as numbers of seed germinated in spring 1975 showed


Author: John Stanley

PP: 252

The Group discussed the various aspects of "Direct Rooting" but mainly concentrated on what we understood by the term and what types of materials are available.

It was agreed by all that direct rooting was aimed at reducing the movement of newly rooted plants.

Rooting Cells. The discussion followed on to talk about what "cells" or rooting units have been used in the industry in recent years, with comments from the group on their advantages and disadvantages.

The following is a list of the rooting units which are available and have been used commercially or in trials at colleges and experimental stations:

    1. Foamed Polyurethane. This type of block is based on flexible foam, which was first marketed in America. Types:
      Baystraat. These blocks were produced by Bayer in pre-cut sheets.
      Nutri-foam. Developed by Dow Chemicals. These blocks tend to suffer from surface water drainage and saturation at the base of the block due to the pore characteristics of

Author: Brian Humphrey

PP: 256

The genera within Hamamelidaceae which can be grown in the British Isles were identified as Hamamelis, Corylopsis, Disanthus, Fothergilla, Liquidambar, Parrotia and Sycopsis. Other genera rarely grown commercially were noted as: Loropetalum, Parrotiopsis and Sinowilsonia.

Author: Bruce MacDonald

PP: 260

The genus Picea has considerable economic importance, for example, within forestry, where P. abies and P. sitchensis are grown. Picea sitchensis is also used for wind protection of nursery stock in exposed sites. It may be interplanted with Alnus incana in order to give initial protection — the latter being removed when the P. sitchensis has grown enough to form a "permeable barrier". Picea gives some excellent specimen trees, with the species P. breweriana and the cultivar, P. orientalis ‘Aurea’. There are also the slow growing forms which can be included in the design of rockeries and heather beds, for example, P. glauca ‘Conica’ and P. mariana ‘Nana’. Thus Picea gives both the nurseryman and private gardener an extreme in habit, form and color — for example the weeping P. abies ‘Inversa’ and the intense glaucous-blue of P. pungens ‘Hoopsii’.

Author: P.D.A. McMillan Browse

PP: 265

Discussion on this subject proved to be somewhat limited as the majority of the group had attended in order to seek information rather than be able to offer experience.

Obtaining Seeds. A list was circulated of commercial seed houses and comments made on the extent of their lists and reliability of supply.

Some discussion took place on the merits of collecting one's own seed where it was possible. It was emphasized that this was not necessarily a cheap alternative as labor requirements were extensive if seed was to be brought to the state of being a clean, well presented sample. It did, however, permit the collector to positively identify his material, to be able to select parent trees for superior, typical, or desirable characteristics and collect at any particular time that was deemed to be advantageous. It was also emphasized that seed bearing, unusual, ornamental woody plants were, more often than not, present in most localities and it was merely a matter of locating such


Author: Charles Parkerson

PP: 50

Lancaster Farms is a small wholesale container nursery located in the southeastern tip of coastal Virginia (zone 8b on the U.S.D.A. Plant Hardiness Zone Map). Production is centered around twenty genera of broadleaf evergreens and ten genera of coniferous evergreen plants. Propagation is mainly by cuttings using three different time schedules. Coniferous evergreens are propagated between January 1 and February 15. Broadleaf evergreens for 1 gallon production are made during December, and broadleafs for 2 and 3 gallon production are made between June 15 and September 15. A few items are propagated by seeds or division.

Propagation Decisions. A propagation system starts with a basic decision as to the type of production that works best for one's business and climate. Since the bulk of our efforts are directed to plants for 2 and 3 gallon production, this paper will concentrate on this system. For many years cuttings were rooted into 2¼" rose pots during the summer and carried over in


Author: Ivor Stanger

PP: 267

With my previous experience with ericaceous plants, plus five years in a general retail nursery prior to joining Bournemouth Parks, it might be interesting to evaluate the situation as an outsider to the trade.

During the five years of managership from 1972 to 1977 I became aware, as many others of you must have done, that to build up a new retail nursery with a very wide range of plants specializing in unusual and rare subjects, whilst in a very tight inflationary spiral, was a difficult task.

Now it seems we are off on another round of inflation which will again mean difficulty in budgeting and forecasting with any accuracy.

With this in mind, I think that nurseries, whether wholesale or retail, will have to examine profit margins more closely than before. What has occurred to me is to compare certain plants and their profitability with their relative ease of growing and their popularity with plants in similar groups.

Take, for example, Rhododendron ‘Princess Anne’ (R. hanceanum var


Author: Denis McCarthy

PP: 271

In the 1950s there were great hopes of an agricultural revolution through the use of hormones in plant production. Giberellic acid (GA3) was of particular interest because of many physiological and morphological changes it could cause in the plant. For example, it could increase shoot growth, initiate flower production, break winter dormancy, increase the rate of seed germination and promote cell division. But now, 30 years later, gibberellic acid is being used only in a few cases such as in the production of parthenocarpic fruits in pears and increasing fruit size in grapes. Not all possibilities of its use has been investigated, however. It is known that GA treatment of herbaceous plants such as dwarf peas, tomatoes and maize causes plants to take on the growth pattern of the "normal" plant. With this in mind, it is hoped to cut the production time of woody dwarf plants by applying GA. This should lead to a temporary suppression of the factors that cause dwarfness and should result

Author: Alan Mitchell

PP: 274

Other things being equal an evergreen tree gives twice the value of a deciduous tree visually and more because it provides shelter when most needed. Evergreens are not fully exploited in the U.K. There are few broadleafed evergreen species of rapid growth or large structure. Conifers have been restricted badly by sooty air near towns until recently, but are much used urban trees in other countries.

Flowers or autumn color are spectacular but brief and have a low score on their own. Foliage is of long duration or is permanent (evergreen) and so has a high score. Bark is permanent and is best seen on deciduous trees in winter and therefore scores highly. Any combinations of the above add greatly to value. Ease of propagation, and hence (but not necessarily) ease of acquisition, is considered secondary, even if decisive.

Some trees with high general scores.

Arbutus menziesii. Pacific madrone. Evergreen, rich bark colors; prominent flowers, colored fruit; good


Author: Don O. Shadow

PP: 278

In planning this new propagation facility I tried to incorporate the many ideas which I have seen and thought about for several years.

The outside propagation beds were built from round peeler core posts (8 ft × 5 in). Being the same dimension throughout, they connect well with strapnail fasteners. The beds are 48 feet long by 4 feet wide with 3 feet isles. Future plans call for underground electrical supply of 24 volts in the beds.

The beds are covered with a wire frame made from 6 by 6 in square construction wire, cut every 13 squares, to make a circular frame without any additional bending. The frame's rough ends are bent, and the whole frame is dipped in a non-fiber asphalt roofing compound diluted with enough gasoline to make it more workable. After drying, the frames are placed on top of the beds and fastened with a long staple at each corner. The staples work much better for me than a bent nail. The above procedure gives a good smooth circular surface on which shade cloth or


Author: Peter Orum, John Wilde, Dieter Schumacher, Gary Knosher

PP: 280

Maybe some propagators have a green thumb or a white root or some other special knack of the art. But efficiency does not come from green thumbs. It comes from analyzing, organizing, developing methods and pushing your crew and facilities to yield their utmost.

What does this mean to us anyway? Making our propagation departments more efficient means that we will produce more plants at a lower cost per plant with the same effort we are already putting into it! And producing more plants at a lower unit costs means more profit. Profit is the lifeblood of business. And that is just as valid for commercial propagators as it is for General Motors. The more profit we propagators make, the more new and better facilities we build, the more propagator meetings we go to, the more plant excursions we go on, the more plants to produce for an expanding market, and the more people we put to work. So the more profit there is, the more life there is. It is high time that we commercial propagators


Author: John R. Hannah

PP: 284

Any person growing and propagating plants on a large scale uses a system or a pattern of work flow to accomplish his goal. It has been my observation that many propagators select one system and depend solely on that system to produce their entire output. It seems to me that this leads to the same mistake the army makes when it dresses everybody in olive drab, and then concludes because they all look the same, they are the same. Logically, using one single system of production for a variable input would force a propagator to be inefficient. Therefore, I would like to discuss some of the various systems and techniques of summer softwood shrub propagation and also the way systems can be fitted to the plant rather than fitting the plants to the system as is usually done. The first thing I would like to discuss is the cutting making system. I am going to describe the traditional system and then I am going to suggest some avenues that one might use to simplify a production system.

Author: J.B. Fletcher

PP: 290

In November, 1973, Greenleaf Nursery started working on a faster way to shear containerized nursery stock, other than the conventional hand shearing method. Through the ideas and determination of our division supervisor, Marvin Fuson, and the technical assistance of our maintenance shop supervisor, Luther Taylor, Greenleaf Nursery now has a shear machine that does a quality job and saves many hours of hand labor.

The first shear machine we made used a 1½ horse power electric motor which turned 3450 RPM's. The motor had a double shaft which allowed us to mount a 16" cutting blade on the bottom and a 12" fan blade on the top. This machine worked as well as our present machine, however, it required an extra person to control the electrical extension cord and a 12 horse power portable power plant to run the electric motor.

Another version of the shear machine is the lawn mower type. This type did not work well for us on junipers. It left a lot of clippings on top of the plants, the cuts


Author: J. Peter Vermeulen

PP: 292

Our nursery is situated in the fertile Raritan River Valley in Somerset County, New Jersey. We are in USDA climate Zone 6a, but because of the low elevation and valley position, our microclimate is that of Zone 5a. Frost-free days range from 142 to 196, spring to fall. Our average mean temperature is 10°C (51.2°F) with a maximum of 36.5°C (98°F).

Poly-covered overwintering structures for our container-grown nursery stock, which consists of woody ornamentals ranging from Abies to Zelkova, are a costly requirement for the production of top quality stock.

Our structures are variations of the quonset (hoop) style houses quite common in the trade. Because of the consistency of our soil, a silt loam, we have problems with our houses moving up and down from the heaving effect of frost. Initially we had problems with wind entering the houses and drying the containerized stock inside. We solved this by using a double layer of poly stapled to a 2" × 4" wooden stringer running the length of


Author: A. Bruce MacDonald

PP: 294


Hadlow College is situated in Kent, some 30 miles south of London. The village of Hadlow lies between the towns of Maidstone and Tonbridge. As horticultural and agricultural colleges function, Hadlow is relatively new in that it was founded in 1967. It was formed with the amalgamation of two Farm Institutes in Kent — Swanley, which was devoted to horticulture, and Sittingbourne — where the bias was agriculture and fruit growing.

The structure of the college is basically as follows: Firstly, there is the College Principal,K.E. Garner, and he is backed up by Adam Sommerville, who is both Vice-Principal and head of Horticulture. Within the Horticulture Department there are the college lecturers, the great majority of whom teach and instruct in specialist subjects. Working closely with them are the technical instructors, whose involvement is teaching students the practical skills. If one takes the nursery stock section, then Chris Lane as senior instructor is very much responsible for the planning


Author: Joseph A. Bowers

PP: 301

Slides are frequently used as visual aids for presentations on many subjects. Certain techniques can be applied to plant photography which will greatly improve the quality of your presentation. Rather than listing specific formulas for good picture-taking, general techniques for improved photography with a 35 mm camera will be discussed. Purchased 5 years ago, my camera cost about $200 with a few accessories. Comparatively, it is an inexpensive single-lens reflex camera.

Therefore get to know your camera, its assets and limitations. The proper way to hold the camera is with your left hand under the lens, with your thumb and index finger manipulating the focusing ring and other settings. Use your right hand to hold the camera body and to depress the shutter release. Keep your elbows close to your body to minimize camera movement. For low light conditions requiring a long exposure, use a tripod and cable release. Other alternatives are to lean against a tree or building, or rest the


Author: Tom Wood

PP: 54


Among United Kingdom nurserymen there is an increasing awareness in the need for specialization in the containerized market for Garden Centres, which is particularly attractive to marketing groups, and the awareness of the need for purpose-grown stock particularly smaller feathered trees, potted shrubs, and herbaceous plants.

Specialist producers are now concentrating either on landscaping and its plant requirements, high quality choice or upmarket plants for the plant enthusiast, heavy standards and larger specimens for local authorities and, in particular, indigenous trees and shrubs which are used in considerable quantities for conservation and the landscaping of industrial developments and roadworks. It is in this last specialist need that we have developed our production technique and it is by relating our own experiences to meet this need that I hope to convey something of our own particular part in nursery production in England. Our development is very closely


Author: John W. Hart, James W. Hanover

PP: 304

Over the last 10 or 20 years, a revolution has been taking place in the nursery industry. Retail nurseries deal almost exclusively with containerized plants which can be handled, transported and planted at almost any time. Conifer seedling produces are adding greenhouse complexes to provide container or "plug" seedlings to help avoid the availability, mortality and planting shock problems associated with field-grown stock. Methods are being investigated which will allow the grower to eliminate inclement weather losses, such as those caused by unexpected frosts and dry spells, and provide a system of production not dependent upon the traditional spring labor forces required to compress huge quantities of work into several weeks. New propagation processes will enable the nurseryman to reproduce, for himself, sufficient quantities of best selling ornamental cultivars and thereby avoid the supply problems faced by other retailers.

At Michigan State University, research has been


Author: Gary L. Koller

PP: 314

Autumn in New England and across parts of North America is a special time, for the countryside blazes with color from a wide array of trees, shrubs, and vines. While horticulturists and homeowners are familiar with colorful standards such as sugar maple (Acer saccharum), red maple (Acer rubrum), winged euonymus (Euonymus alata) and bradford pear (Pyrus calleryana ‘Bradford’), there are plants just as colorful which remain virtually unknown. The plants which follow are spectacular autumn performers at the Arnold Arboretum and ones which I believe deserve review and testing by professional plants people.

Author: H.S. Bhella

PP: 321

Plant introduction, in its broadest sense, is the introduction of wild plants into cultivation. Throughout the development of civilization, wherever man has gone, he has always taken along seeds of the plants with which he was familiar. The search for new or better plants was often an underlying reason for many of his explorations into unknown parts of the world.

Author: Peter Vermeulen

PP: 330

This evening we are privileged to recognize by suitable award a person who has, in the eyes of this Society, made noteworthy contributions to the art and science of plant propagation — a person who has a keen interest in plants — their selection, propagation, production and their use in the beautification of home grounds and public areas.

The recognition is that of his/her fellow members by nomination, which only makes the granting of the award that much more esteemed. The award committee functions only to solicit, screen and make final determination, completely separate and apart from opinions or desires of the officers other than the exercise of their privilege to nominate, the same privilege accorded to every member. The award is made only, when in the opinion of the committee, it is warranted. The 1979 committee is immensely pleased to say that it has so determined and is much warranted.

Our Award of Merit recipient was born in Providence, R.I., November 13, 1923. With one notable


Author: A Bruce MacDonald

PP: 332

The aim of this paper is to highlight some of the current trends and developments that have taken place within the nursery stock industry in the United Kingdom. It will be related under three main sections:
  1. Contributions by the nurseryman.
  2. Contributions by the research stations.
  3. Contributions by the advisory (extension) service of the Ministry of Agriculture.

However, one cannot in reality look at them as isolated compartments, as many ideas have been join efforts within two, or all three sections.


Author: Douglas J. Chapman

PP: 345

This survey-study was initiated to determine if Acer campestre, A. platonoides, A. rubrum, and A. ginnala could be propagated by cuttings and grown using accelerated growth techniques, as developed by Hanover et al (7), to produce a 3 to 4 foot plant in one season. During the past decade Davidson (3), Schwab (9), and others have noted continual graft incompatibility within the cultivars of A. rubrum. Presently, it hasn't been determined if this incompatibility is pathologically or physiologically induced or is due to a provenance response of the stock (personal conversation with Davidson (3)).

Softwood cuttings were used in this study so that the plants could be grown on using accelerated growth techniques after propagation (6,7,8,10). It was felt that juvenility moves acropetally in plants, and juvenile plants (seedlings) are more photoperiodic responsive than mature plants (9,10). If this hypothesis held up, one could maximize growth. Softwood cuttings of the aforementioned Acer species were


Author: J.F. Ahrens

PP: 348

Fourteen herbicides were tested on cultivars of Taxus, Juniperus, Rhododendron, Leucothoe and Pieris from 1970 to 1979. Mature tip cuttings were harvested from 2 container and 6 field experiments following herbicide applications. None of 11 soil-applied (preemergence) herbicides and only one of the 3 postemergence herbicides caused significant reductions in rooting of cuttings. Some herbicides were applied at 2 to 4 times normal rates and reapplied 4 to 5 times in containers, or 2 to 3 times in the field before cuttings were taken. The only significant effects on rooting of cuttings from treated plants were obtained when glyphosate was sprayed over Taxus in May, August or November, and cuttings were taken in December, January, or March. Glyphosate caused less foliar injury to Juniperus horizontalis ‘Plumosa’ than to Taxus cuspidata during any season of application and did not affect rooting of cuttings from the treated junipers.

Author: David H. Bakker

PP: 358

Why do we store plants at subfreezing temperatures? Primarily because dormancy is guaranteed, it is closer to nature, diseases are nonexistant or easy to control, and low temperature give high relative humidity. Additionally, plants grow faster initially; this is very important when hot, dry summers follow short springs. Storage at subfreezing temperatures does have some limitations. Shipping during midwinter at a moment?s notice is hard to do unless stock is packed accordingly and humidity must be replenished every 5 to 6 weeks.

We use the following procedures: Plants are dug in the fall or early spring when they are dormant. Sometimes the foliage is "sweated off", as with rose bushes. Botran spray is applied on storage in bins. The bins are made out of 2" × 4" lumber and placed on pallets so that cold air can pass under the bin as well as over the top since the floor gives off some heat. Plants are placed root to root and a layer of paper waste (called clarifier), obtained from a


Author: Clayton W. Fuller

PP: 360

Five years ago, when we decided to grow some of our Euonymous alata ‘Compacta’ in containers, we were not aware of the various problems that would arise from growing this species in containers. This report outlines some of these problems and our solutions.

We always gather our cuttings from the best growing stock in the nursery. In our area, cuttings are taken the 4th week of June. They are taken only from the most vigorously growing plants. The cuttings we make are 6 to 7 inches in length and about the diameter of a lead pencil. They are put in bundles of 25 in the field as they are made, and held together with an elastic band. They then are brought into the propagating work area where the bottom 2 or 3 sets of leaves are removed. We do not recut the cuttings; thus reducing the labor in the work area. We never remove any part on the terminal growth, because we feel that natural self-branching is sufficient. We also find that it checks the growth of the plant later on in its growth cycle.


Author: D.L. Hensley, R.E. McNeil

PP: 363

Nitrogen is an essential inorganic element for all forms of life and, with the exception of water, is the most frequently encountered limiting factor in crop production. Organisms capable of using atmospheric nitrogen ordinarily require no other source, but those lacking this capability are dependent upon nitrogen from fertilizer or soil reserves. Biological nitrogen fixation of atmospheric nitrogen not only supplies the element to the fixing organism, but is a source of nitrogen for other plants. This occurs through leakage and plant decomposition in a variety of habitats that are important in food production, prevention of erosion and maintenance of ecological balances.

Nitrogen fixation by legumes has long been recognized and has become an important part of modern agriculture. The occurrence of nodules and nitrogen fixation by non-legume angiosperms is less noted but offers many potential uses.

The first occurrence of nodules on nonlegumes was recorded early in the nineteenth century


Author: Philip A. Barker, D. Carl Freeman

PP: 59

Finding and producing non-fruiting trees is an important way of providing buyers with improved selections of landscape trees, but unexpected sex expression of trees can thwart such aspirations. Notwithstanding a possible mixup of budwood, an ephemeral change in the sex of a tree or any other plant can occur. Typically non-fruiting individuals occasionally may shift towards femaleness and bear fruit. In other cases, plants that normally have female sex expression, may shift in some years towards maleness and have only male flowers and, of course, no fruit.

From an ecological viewpoint, there seems good reason for expression of sexual flexibility in plants. Because of immobility, plant survival depends on the ability to cope in place, whatever the environmental stresses may be. Charnov and Bull (3) proposed that "labile sex determination (not fixed at conception) is favored by natural selection when an individual's fitness (as a male or female) is strongly influenced by environmental


Author: Ralph Shugert, Bruce Briggs

PP: 370

The question box session was convened at 4:10 pm with Ralph Shugert and Bruce Briggs serving as moderators.

MODERATOR SHUGERT: Question for Gary Koller. Do you have blight problems with Aesculus parviflora? Have you propagated this plant?

GARY KOLLER: We have had no major problem with it. I have seen some leaf scorch in a few areas.

MICHAEL DIRR: It will propagate from root pieces, suckers and seeds.

JOE MCDANIEL: A. parviflora is susceptible to leaf hopper damage and scorch will set in after an infestation.

RALPH SHUGERT: We can not grow it in Ohio. I think it has a heat problem.

MODERATOR SHUGERT: I have a very hardy Tilia cordata from a northern source. Where can I obtain rootstock of comparable hardiness?

DAVE BAKKER: From the federal experimental farm at Mordon, Manatoba.

MODERATOR SHUGERT: I have several superior selections of Celtis occidentalis. How can I profitably propagate them?

JOE MCDANIEL: I have several superior sele


Author: Leonard P. Stoltz

PP: 375

A pilot tissue culture laboratory can be set up for less than $1000 if alternatives of materials and equipment are investigated. Some construction skills are needed to accomplish this, although no charge has been added for such labor costs to this proposal.

Author: K. Welsh, K.C. Sink, H. Davidson

PP: 382

Tissue culture experiments were conducted using shoot-tips (5 to 10 mm) or single node sections to devise an in vitro propagation scheme for red maple(Acer rubrum). Inconsistent proliferation of axillary buds on shoot-tip explants occurred when they were aseptically cultured on modified Linsmaier and Skoog (LS) medium containing kinetin (K), 6-benzylaminopurine (6 BAP) or N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)-adenine (2ip) at 0.1, 1.0, 5 or 10 mg/l.

Actively growing shoots were a prerequisite for a high percent rooting of proliferated shoots. Eighty-five percent of shoots cultured on ½ strenght LS + 0.5 mg/l indolebutyric acid (IBA) developed roots within 10 days. Phenolic secretion that inhibited growth was controlled by preconditioning explants on potato dextrose agar or LS basal medium by a series of 3-day subcultures.


Author: Brent McCown, Ron Amos

PP: 387

The rapid multiplication of Betula platyphylla var. azechuanica by micropropagation using shoot-tip cultures has been demonstrated on a commercially-feasible basis. Shoot-tips and nodal explants placed on Greeshof-Doy nutrient agar medium supplemented with 4µm benzyladenine produced actively growing shoot cultures within 6 months. Stocks could be maintained or increased by monthly subculturing after removal of the elongating shoots and division of the resultant shoot-mass. Twenty to 30 utilizable shoots could be harvested from each culture in 6 to 8 weeks after subculturing. Harvested shoots rooted with 100% success within 2 weeks when placed in peat/perlite in a rooting chamber. After a period of acclimation, these plants could be treated like young seedlings in commercial production. A comparison of the field growth of seedling and micropropagated birch showed that both had identical growth rates in the spring and summer; however the microprogated plants stopped growth one month earlier than the average seedlings. This resulted in the micropropagated plants having a smaller size at grading than the seedlings. Whether this difference was genetic or a result of the propagation technique is unknown. The micropropagated plants were highly uniform in growth and grade as compared to the seedling propagated plants.

Author: Shu-Ching Huang, D.F. Millikan

PP: 393

Asexual or vegetative propagation of plants is practiced when the qualities of elite clones are not maintained in seedling progenies. Asexual propagation also perpetuates any systemic infection caused by viruses or vascular wilt organisms. Micropropagation can eliminate such infections and, in some cases, is the only available method for obtaining healthy plants. Four methods of micropropagation currently are being practiced. Three of these have limited usefulness due to the possibility of propagating somatic mutations. In as much as current and future investigation could change this, they will be briefly discussed. The fourth, tip meristem culture, has been used for a quarter of a century to eliminate viruses from infected plants and is the basis for the commercial production of cultured carnations, chrysanthemums and geraniums.

Callus tissue can be induced on many plant species, aseptically removed, and cultured under in vitro conditions. Culture of such tissue provides healthy


Author: Richard H. Zimmerman

PP: 398

In 1976, a growers' cooperative (Centrale Ortofrutticola alla Produzione) in Cesena, Italy, began planning a tissue culture laboratory for large-scale production of several horticultural crops. Dr. Carmine Damiano, of the Istituto Sperimentale per la Frutticoltura in Rome, was instrumental in designing and organizing the laboratory and in consulting on problems once tissue culturing got under way. P. Boxus, of Gembloux, Belgium, also served as a consultant on the project.

The laboratory was built in the basement of the main building of a Technical Agricultural Institute in Cesena. The laboratory consists of a media preparation room, a dishwashing and autoclave room, a transfer room, a large growth room, and office and storage space. The rooms are large, well-lit and constructed so that maintaining a clean work environment is facilitated. The capital cost for the laboratory was about $200,000.

The laboratory facilities are well designed with a good work flow from one section to another. Six large


Author: Lydiane Kyte, Bruce Briggs

PP: 401

(See page 90 for complete text of this paper.)

PAUL READ: Would you comment on stock plant manipulation and cultivar differences?

BRUCE BRIGGS: I feel that you should bring the stock plant into a greenhouse and give it the best growing conditions. Do not water the tops so as not to contaminate the new growth. This is the best we have devised to get the plant into the proper condition. In conifers they have taken mature tissue and grafted it onto juvenile understock. After they get that to grow they put it in tissue culture. There is, considerable cultivar differences in rhododendrons. Cytokinins appear to be the factor most influencing success.

DICK JAYNES: Do cuttings from tissue cultured plants propagate more readily than cuttings from older plants?



Author: John Ganzer

PP: 401

Why are we interested in tissue culture? Our interest is based on the need for virus-free plant material, for the rapid buildup of new cultivars and rootstocks, and as a means for propagation of difficult-to-root plant materials. For many years we have conducted our own heat-treating program to get cultivars virus free. It is a slow process to build up this material once it is clean. Tissue culture will give us the tool to produce sufficient quantities for our needs. Another use will be for the buildup of new cultivars as we find them. At present it takes as long as 5 to 7 years to get into full production with a new cultivar. Rootstocks take as long. The third use is to propagate difficult-to-root plants. An example would be selected strains of Carpathian walnut, such as ‘Lake's’.

Our involvement came from discussions with suppliers on the future of the rootstock business and the fact there were many new rootstocks on the horizon and some old ones which had the viruses removed, but


Author: Mark Zilis, Douglas Zwagerman, David Lamberts, Lawrence Kurtz

PP: 404

A wide range of herbaceous perennial species can be efficiently propagated on the commercial level using plant tissue culture techniques. Maximum productivity is achieved by finding the optimal physical and chemical conditions for the multiplication and rooting of propagules in vitro and in the transition to the soil environment. Utilization of these methods at Walters Gardens, a large wholesale producer of herbaceous perennials, has enabled rapid introduction of new cultivars, propagation of plant species difficult to produce by cuttings or divisions, and production of disease-free plants. The end result has been an increase in the quantity and quality of healthy, vigorous plants.

Author: William Mertens

PP: 414

Cuttings of Ilex crenata Thumb. ‘Helleri’ and ‘Rotundifolia’ were rooted and grown in polyvinyl chloride pipe sections from which longitudinal sections could be removed for root observations. Plants were fertilized at either 150 or 300 ppm N with a 20N–8.7P–16.5K soluble fertilizer. Rate of root and shoot growth was determined through 2 to 3 flushes of growth following rooting by taking weekly measurements of shoots and roots. Root growth of both cultivars usually preceded a shoot growth flush by 1 to 2 weeks. This growth pattern was observed at booth fertility levels.

Author: Hugh Steavenson

PP: 66

The economics of nursery production today call for growing the plant to desired size and finish in the shortest possible time. I suppose this would be true with any nursery crop, save possible bonsai. And even here, to be economically feasible, the rule would apply.

One of the more sage nurseryman put it this way: "We used to take two or three years to produced a gallon can plant. Now they never see a birthday."

We are in-ground, or field growers. A specialty with us is hardy deciduous tree and shrub seedlings of which we grow several million and almost 100 species. About 100 acres, or one-fourth of our nursery area, is devoted to seedling production. These find their way into a number of markets in 49 states — for canning and field lining, for understock, for various conservation and highway plantings. Many are of ideal size for mail-order nurseries, for packaging, for hedging and other direct uses.

With few exceptions, it is desirable, indeed economically necessary, to produce the


Author: Jack Alexander, Michael A. Dirr

PP: 419

MODERATOR DIRR: Our first speaker on this portion will be Dr. Sidney Waxman who has three plants he would like to discuss.

SIDNEY WAXMAN: Pinus strobus 'Yu Coon' is a dense fast growing shrub or small tree grown from seed obtained from a witches' broom. Unlike normal white pines, it retains the lower branches. Its dense branching develops naturally without pruning. The dimensions of this plant, after having been grown for 15 years are 10½ feet tall and 7 feet broad.

Larix x eurolepsis (unnamed cultivar) is a weeping, spreading tree. Its most interesting characteristic is that the major branches tend to grow horizontally and undulate, while the secondary branches weep. Its winder character is also of interest.

Sciadopitys verticillata (unnamed cultivar) has several chracteristics that are desirable. The foliage is deep green. The needles do not bronze in the winter but retain their green color and become glossy. Also this particular tree was selected


Author: H.B. Turkey Jr

PP: 422

The phenomenon which nurserymen call rooting is really a combination of several processes and chemical interactions, often separated into root initiation and root development. In the first, cells capable of rejuvenating and becoming meristematic, receive appropriate chemical signals and start dividing. In the second, these meristematic groups of cells called root initials respond to different sets of signals and continue division and elongation into young roots, aided by factors in the environment.

Physiologists ask the nature of the signals, which cells perceive them, and why root cells are produced and not some other type. These are important considerations, because the theory of totipotency suggests that cells in plants have the genetic information to make a complete new plant.

First, what types of cells have the ability to rejuvenate, de-differentiate or to divide again, and where are these cells located? Many cells are so differentiated that it is difficult if not impossible for them to


Author: Jack Siebenthaler

PP: 429

One of the joys of observing the changes of season throughout most of the United States stems from the opportunity to view the magnificent fall coloring that graces our landscaped neighborhoods and wooded acres.

Curiously, while many northerners long for the chance to loll under the evergreen palms and other flora of the Sunshine State, southern residents complain that we do not have the wonderful change of seasons with its colorful foliage. Many of these people have simply not stopped to take stock of the wonderful color displayed by the many species of tropical trees that abound in Florida.

While not an absolute substitute for the rainbow of color accompanying the frost periods of the north, many flowering trees do bloom in the cool weather months of the Deep South. Many valuable introductions from more exotic areas can be used along with those presently grown to give color during the fall and winter.

Surely, few sugar maples are more spectacular than the glory of mature


Author: Peter E. Girard Sr

PP: 431

I would like to talk to you today about plant breeding. It is nothing new to many of you. Most of you have done some of it. The question is how successful we are in breeding plants. Some propagators hybridize plants just for pleasure and the possible chance that a marketable seedling will result. Some propagators are more critical and use a system for their hybridization. This, of course, is the best method.

The first step is to write down what is wanted from a cross. Do we want to gain hardiness, compactness, certain foliage color, or improved flower texture?

The next step is to find out all we can about the parent plants we intend to use. This is important. Even though the parent is attractive, recessive undesirable characteristics may appear in its offspring. Therefore, we need to know the origin of the parent plants in order to predict what we may expect from the next generation. Our breeding record is shown in Table 1.

I set out many years ago to try to develop an azalea that would withstand the occasional


Author: Peter Van Der Giessen

PP: 436

Until a few years ago, we thought it was necessary to heat every house throughout the cold season. Each house was equipped with a butane-burning Modine heater set at 15.5°C (60°F). Our heating bill during the period of October through March was over $6000 for heating seven houses, a typical expense for our area. With the spiraling cost of operation and equipment, we are always searching for ways to cut costs.

During the fuel shortage of 1976 we decided we must find a method that would produce a crop without requiring so much fuel. Since then we have experimented with houses closed at each end, with houses open at each end, with different soil mixes and with other variations in technique. Although we are not certain exactly why, I can tell you about the methods that have worked for Cottage Hill and perhaps you can adapt these methods to your own operation.

Over the last few years we have developed a heating method for our propagation that has saved us an increasing amount each winter.


Author: Randall E. Strode, Patricia A. Travers, Raymond P. Oglesby

PP: 439

Young shoot tips from rhododendron #704-792-1450 were excised from the mother plant two weeks after a flush of growth was initiated. This tissue proved quite productive in a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) salt solution with added organic constituents and 5 mg/l of N6-(Δ2-isoentenyl)-adenine (2iP) and 1 mg/l indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Plants rooted well and were transferred to soil with 90 percent survival rate.

Author: Bill Lawson

PP: 443

At Bush Ranch we produce about 5 million bare-root coniferous evergreen liners per year. We have several unique practices in our production system. I will discuss three of them this morning but first I will explain how we prepare our field beds for propagation.

Everything is done outside in open beds, each holding approximately 100,000 liners. We start preparation by tilling the soil. We then take a soil sample, make the necessary adjustments with fertilizer and lime, apply a nematacide and a prophylactic dose of fungicide and, finally, fumigate the soil by injecting Brozone.1 This is a form of methyl bromide, which we use because it is effective at low temperatures, and we do most of our fumigating during the cold season.

After soil preparation is completed, we install galvanized pipe mist lines. Eight 48-inch beds are irrigated by a single line, 4 beds on each side. Each of these 8-bed sections has a single time clock that controls both the mist, and or both at the same time.

As stated


Author: Robert C. Hare

PP: 446

A new, rapid, standardized air-layering system, in combination with several chemical formulations applied to the branch girdles, gave over 60 percent rooting and survival of 8-year-old loblolly pine.

Author: Richard W. Henley

PP: 454

The intent of this article is to provide an overview of the tropical foliage plant industry in Florida, indicate differences which exist between South Florida and Central Florida nurseries, mention some techniques of macro-propagation utilized for major groups of foliage plants and suggest plants which deserve more use in the industry.

Author: P.L. Neel

PP: 468

Propagation techniques employed with the more commonly grown tropical foliage and landscape ornamental plants in Florida are similar in most instances to those used for temperate zone plants. Nursery production of tropical plants in south Florida was summarized by Neel at the 1975 Eastern Regional IPPS meeting, and propagation of selected species was discussed in that paper (1). This paper summarizes the various methods of plant propagation (other than tissue culture) which are utilized in the Florida nursery industry. Commonly grown tropical foliage, landscape, and fruiting plants are presented separately. Examples of special considerations or treatments are presented for each category. For the purpose of discussion, in this paper foliage plants refers to those grown and adapted for use indoors in homes, offices, stores, malls, and similar locations.

Author: Larry Carville

PP: 71

The information presented herewith is based upon my experience as a propagator at wholesale nurseries in the North eastern U.S. The methods described are generally acceptable by most successful growing operations east of the Mississippi River. Specific references to Rhode Island Nurseries, Middletown, Rhode Island result from my recent eleven years in their employment as Production Horticulturist.

One of the keys to successful propagation is to do things at the proper time. This is true whether it involves taking cuttings, transplanting into beds, or any of the other myriad operations associated with nursery production. At Rhode Island Nurseries, between 600,000 and 750,000 units are propagated each year with a labor force of seven full-time employees in the propagation department. All cuttings are taken from plants growing in fields of the parent operation.

Propagation Methods. This discussion will concentrate on propagation of conifer cuttings taken during their dormant period.


Author: William H. Cribbs, Robert Little

PP: 480

The formation of peat bogs in southern Georgia and northern Florida is unique in many respects when compared to peat bogs elsewhere in this country. The bogs are characterized by steep drainage slopes, deep peat deposits, and rapid past development. Analysis of peats from such bogs shows a high micronutrient content, low pH, moderate cation exchange capacity, good water holding capabilities, low soluble salts, and adequate pore space to be considered a horticultural peat. In organic matter content these peats rank among the highest in the world.

Author: F.A. Pokorny

PP: 484

Considerable research has been conducted to develop a standardized potting medium for growing flower, bedding and woody plants in containers. However, potting media in use by flower growers and nurserymen are varied. Imported peat moss has been an important source of organic matter used in potting media because it has been readily available at moderate cost. As costs continue to rise, growers will continue to seek less costly substitutes for peat moss which will impart the same desirable physical and chemical properties to their potting mixtures.

Tree bark, a by-product of the forestry industry, is an organic material that has undergone evaluation in recent years as a peat moss substitute for greenhouse and nursery crops (1,8,9,14,17,20,22,24,26,29). The advantages of using bark, either hardwood or softwood are: 1) it is a renewable resource; 2) it is currently available at lower cost to the grower than imported peat moss, and 3) bark can be processed by hammer-mill and screening to


Author: H.A.J. Hoitink, H.A. Poole

PP: 495

A variety of publications from the United States (9,10,16,22,28), Norway (27), Belgium (4,5,6), Finland (18), and Japan (30) have discussed composting of tree barks for use in container media. Although differences in properties of bark from tree species are considerable, established methods for production of high quality composts are remarkably similar. The composting process comprises a complex series of biological events that remove mostly cellulose (wood and cambium) and various toxins (24,29) from bark and leave humic acid, lignins and a variety of microorganisms as major end products. In this article, key factors are discussed that affect the composting rate of tree barks and quality of the end product. Information presented is based on research performed at the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center during the past 8 years as well as research at other institutions. Some guidelines were established in cooperation with various commercial operations that produce composts for container

Author: Hudson T. Hartmann

PP: 504

In obtaining new information from experimental studies, a set of procedures has been developed by the scientific community which, over the years, has worked very well and is generally adhered to.

For the IPPS, it is advisable for us to follow this same pattern in planning, conducting and reporting experimental projects (1,2). This article has been prepared to assist Society members in setting up experiments, recording results, and preparing their papers for publication in the IPPS Proceedings.

The general outline of these accepted procedures, and how they transform into a manuscript ready for publication are listed below and will be discussed using the final sections of the completed articles as an outline:

  1. Title of article. Considerable thought should be given in selecting a title which will be brief yet informative and complete. The title of the article is all the reader will see in literature citation lists or reviews so the title should be as informative as possible.
  2. Authors names

Author: B.P. Verma

PP: 510

Mechanization of any operation is done for the purpose of increasing its efficiency. Often the attitude is taken that machines are installed to replace workers. Instead we should view mechanization as a means of improving workers' efficiency and making their jobs easier. Men and machines must work together in an integrated fashion before an overall system can be improved. Machines do not necessarily improve every situation. We must look at the entire operation before we can decide whether or not a machine is needed for a particular job. Too often a machine is installed at one point in production while operations before and after are not changed. As a result the machine cannot be utilized on a continuous basis. Systems analysis can help pinpoint such problems.

Systems analysis using a dynamic computer simulation model is a logical-mathematical representation of a system used for analyzing and identifying problems in a wide variety of industrial and agricultural problems. Numerous


Author: William E. Colburn

PP: 522

We became interested in piece work applications several years ago when we realized our production rates were not as good as some other nurseries around the country. There were, in fact, tremendous differences in efficiencies from one nursery to another. Several nurseries were using piece work rates in preparing and sticking cuttings, filling pots and transplanting liners to larger containers. Our first attempt at piece work was in our propagation department and involved filling 2¼ inch pots and preparing and sticking cuttings. We met with a great deal of resistance from our employees, which could be expected with any change, especially one involving their income. It didn't take long before the better workers realized they could make 1½ times their normal pay if they worked efficiently.

We soon started applying piece work to many other nursery operations. There are advantages and disadvantages; however, the advantages are far greater. Probably the greatest advantage is that we have


Author: Dan L. Gunter

PP: 525

How many of you know your individual plants costs? Few nurserymen know their cost for producing plants of a given cultivar, species or size. Most, however, make decisions where such information would be of great value. Why should nurserymen be concerned with individual plants costs?
  1. Knowledge of individual plant costs will allow managers to insure that production costs are absorbed and a profit is earned when the price lists are developed.
  2. This knowledge also allows managers to produce plants that return higher profits.
  3. Plant cost can also serve as the basis for inventory valuation. The plant inventory is of particular importance when the nurseryman is concerned with a financial analysis since "growing plants" are usually the largest single investment item. Therefore, an accurate assessment of the nurseryman's net worth depends on accurate valuation of the plant inventory.

Author: C.H. Hendershott

PP: 533


In order to make the most effective use of the methods available to us for protecting plants in the nursery, it is helpful to have some knowledge of how heat is transferred. There are 3 ways heat moves — by radiation, conduction, and convection.

Radiant energy is energy in the form of short waves above the visible region of our spectrum. These waves travel in a straight line at the speed of light, 186,000 mps. This energy is not heat as it moves through the atmosphere, and it does not become heat until it strikes a solid object. It is, therefore, not affected by wind. On a cold, calm night a plant loses heat by radiation since any object warmer than its surroundings will lose heat to the colder objects which, in this case, would include the atmosphere. If we could prevent the loss of radiant energy from the plant, it would stay at its same temperature and would not be damaged by the cold. During the day the plant is absorbing radiant energy from the sun. It is protected


Author: R.C. Lambe

PP: 536

Holly (Ilex), species represent one of the most important groups of woody ornamentals grown in U.S. ornamental nurseries. There are numerous cultivars and hybrids with many different growth forms offered for sale. Hollies have originated in geographical regions with diverse climates and are frequently grown under conditions in the nursery that predispose them to disease. Therefore it is not unusual for disease epiphytotics to occur.

Some of the diseases that have been reported are restricted to a single species of holly (14), whereas other diseases occur on several different species (20). In addition, certain holly cultivars of a species have been reported to be more susceptible than others (5).

Under the intensive culture practices of high fertility levels, frequent irrigation, and high plant density currently employed in the nurseries in the east and southeast, holly is frequently predisposed by conditions favorable for diseases development. During a particular year it is not unusual for


Author: Richard Stadtherr, Jake Tinga

PP: 544

The Southern Region Question Box was moderated by Richard Stadtherr and Jake Tinga.

JACK SIEBENTHALER: What is fly ash? Several growers are using it in their media.

JAKE TINGA: It is a slate-like waste product resulting from coal combustion and was formerly readily available.

TED RICHARDSON:Fly ash is still available from coal-burning companies.

RICHARD VAN LANDINGHAM: Calcined clay is another product that can be used as a medium. It is manufactured by heating clay as is done with vermiculite and perlite. It is then light and sterile and is comparable to perlite.

DON CLAY: The clay is similar to Fuller's earth.

JUDSON GERMANY: We are able to buy styrofoam, which is considerably cheaper than perlite.

PETER GIRARD: It works well and is cheaper than perlite.

JAKE TINGA: It might be possible to use the waste from hot drink cup manufacturing. In addition to improving aeration I have also read a report from Germany that formaldehyde is a break-down product, which provides